Cholecalciferol supplementation improves secondary hyperparathyroidism control in hemodialysis patients

Abstract

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common among hemodialysis (HD) patients and is an important component in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We herein report our experience on the impact of cholecalciferol supplementation on PTH levels in a group of HD patients.

Patients and methods: We selected 122 HD patients. The main selection criteria were 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels ≤30 ng/mL and SHPT defined as PTH levels >300 pg/mL or PTH levels between 150-300 pg/mL during therapy with cinacalcet or paricalcitol. 82 patients agreed to receive cholecalciferol at the fixed dose of 25,000 IU per week orally for 12 months, while the remaining 40 represented the control group. The main endopoints of the study were the reduction in PTH levels ≥30% compared to baseline values and the increase of 25(OH)D levels to values >30 ng/mL.

Results: At follow-up PTH levels decreased in the supplemented group from 476 ±293 to 296 ± 207 pg/mL (p<0.001), 25(OH)D levels increased from 10.3 ± 5.7 to 33.5 ± 11.2 ng/mL (p<0.001), serum calcium increased from 8.6 ± 0.5 to 8.8 ± 0.6 mg/dL (p<0.05) while serum phosphorus did not change. In this group the mean doses of paricalcitol were significantly reduced, from 8.7 ± 4.0 to 6.1 ± 3.9 µg/week (p<0.001). Moreover, in this group there were a significant increase of hemoglobin levels, from 11.6 ± 1.3 to 12.2 ± 1.1 g/dL (p <0.01) and a significant reduction of erythropoietin doses (p<0.05). In the control group the 25(OH)D and PTH levels did not change, while cinacalcet doses increased from 21 ±14 to 43 ± 17 mg/d (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Vitamin deficiency is very common in HD patients. Cholecalciferol treatment significantly increased serum 25(OH)D levels, significantly decreased PTH levels and paricalcitol doses, concurrently entailing a better control of anemia. 

Keywords: vitamin D, cholecalciferol, hemodialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism, paricalcitol

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Introduzione

L’iperparatiroidismo secondario (IPS) inizia come un processo adattativo ma in ultimo, a seguito del ridursi della funzione renale, della ridotta escrezione di fosfati, della ridotta produzione di vitamina D e dell’ipocalcemia, si trasforma in un processo patologico [1]. È opinione comune che bassi livelli sierici di vitamina D siano la causa del bilancio negativo del calcio, dell’IPS e della patologia ossea. Le concentrazioni sieriche di 25-idrossivitamina D (25(OH)D) sono il principale indice del patrimonio di vitamina D del nostro organismo e sono utilizzate per definire uno stato carenziale di vitamina D [2]. Nelle linee guida National Kidney Foundation–Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF–KDOQI), livelli sierici di 25(OH)D <5 ng/mL sono utilizzati per indicare una grave deficienza di vitamina D, livelli tra 5 e 15 ng/mL indicano una lieve insufficienza, livelli tra 16 e 30 ng/mL indicano un’insufficienza, mentre livelli maggiori di 30 ng/mL vengono considerati ottimali, anche se non vi è unanime consenso su quali siano i livelli sierici di vitamina D da considerare ottimali [3, 4].

 

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Correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism with paricalcitol in renal transplant improves left ventricular hypertrophy

Abstract

Background – Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is common in renal transplant recipients (RTRs), and persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is considered to be one of the main causes of its pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated if the control of SHPT with paricalcitol is associated with a reduction of LVH in RTRs. Methods – For this purpose we selected 24 RTRs with LVH and SHPT . Secondary hyperparathyroidism was defined as PTH levels 1.5 times higher than the high normal limits, while LVH was defined as a left ventricular mass index (LVMi) >95g/m2 in females, and >115g/m2 in males. Treatment with paricalcitol started at mean dose of 1µg/day and lasted 18 months. The dose of paricalcitol was reduced to 1µg on the other day when serum calcium was >10.5mg/dl and/or fractional excretion of calcium was >0.020%; administration was temporarily stopped when serum calcium was >11 mg/dl. Results – At follow-up PTH levels decreased from 198 ± 155 to 105 ± 43pg/ml (P < .01), and LVMi decreased from 134 ± 21 to 113 ± 29g/m2 (P < .01); the presence of LVH decreased from 100% at baseline to 54% at F-U. Serum calcium levels showed a modest and not significant increase. Renal function was stable in all patients. Conclusions – Secondary hyperparathyroidism seems to play an important role in the development and maintenance of LVH and its correction with paricalcitol has a favorable impact on its progression.

Keywords: left ventricular hypertrophy; parathormone; paricalcitol; renal transplantation; secondary hyperparathyroidism

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INTRODUZIONE

La patologia cardiovascolare rimane una delle principali cause di morbilità e mortalità nel paziente portatore di trapianto renale (1). L’ipertrofia ventricolare sinistra (IVS) è uno dei principali reperti ecocardiografici nel trapianto renale riscontrandosi in circa il 50-70% di questi pazienti (2). L’evoluzione della IVS dopo trapianto renale rimane controversa.  

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