Protected: The underlying cause of kidney disease is often unknown in dialysis patients: a possible genomic approach


As much as 16-17% European and American patients on renal replacement therapy do not have a conclusive diagnosis of the cause of their renal failure. This may have important implications on the types of morbidity they can develop in case of systemic diseases with extrarenal involvement, or recurrent renal diseases in transplanted patients. A better knowledge of the underlying disease can have important prognostic and therapeutic repercussions.

In this study we evaluated the rate of uremic patients who can benefit from a genomic diagnostic approach. Patients liable to a future genomic diagnostic study were selected based on two criteria: (i) age of dialysis entry less or equal to 55 years, and (ii) presence of a non-conclusive diagnosis. Based on the data extracted from the REGDIAL registry, we analyzed 534 patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. We identified 300 patients with age of entry into replacement therapy <55 years (56.2% of the overall study population). Among these, we identified 107 patients with missing or inconclusive diagnosis, which was equal to 20% of the overall population. Of these patients, 32.8% reported a positive family history of kidney disease.

This study confirms that a significant proportion of patients on renal replacement therapy do not have an etiological diagnosis and may be subject to a genomic evaluation. With the increasing availability of genomic sequencing technology and the falling of related costs, nephrologists will be increasingly inclined to incorporate clinical genetic testing into their diagnostic armamentarium. There is therefore a need for in-depth, multicenter studies aimed at developing evidence-based guidelines, clear indications and at confirming the usefulness of genetic testing in nephrology.


Keywords: end stage renal disease, epidemiology, nephrosclerosis

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Protected: Case report: the thoracoscopic surgery in peritoneal-pleural leakage. A valid therapeutic strategy


Pleuro-peritoneal leakage is an uncommon complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, we report the case of a male patient (age 83), treated with PD (daytime single-exchange). In October 2019, hospitalization was necessary due to dyspnoea and a reduction of peritoneal ultrafiltration. A right pleural leakage resulted at chest x-ray. A regression of the pleural leakage was immediately observed after interrupting PD.

It was then performed a pleuro-peritoneal CT scan at baseline, followed by a second scan performed 4 hours after the injection of 2 L of isotonic solution with 100ml of contrast medium, which evidenced a pleuro-peritoneal communication. It was then decided to perform a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), that showed no evidence of diaphragm communication. It was then executed a pleurodesis using sterile talcum. The patient was released on the 3rd day, with a conservative therapy and a low-protein diet. After 2 weeks a new pleuro-peritoneal CT scan with contrast medium was executed. This time the scan evidenced the absence of contrast medium in the thoracic cavity. The patient then resumed PD therapy, with 3 daily exchanges with isotonic solution (volume 1.5 L), showing no complications.

Concerning the treatment of pleuro-peritoneal leakage, VATS allows both the patch-repairing of diaphragmatic flaws and the instillation of chemical agents. In our case, VATS allowed the chemical pleurodesis which in turn enabled, in just 2 weeks of conservative treatment, the resuming of PD. In conclusion, this methodology is a valid option in the treatment of pleuro-peritoneal leakage in PD patients.


Keywords: pleuro-peritoneal leakage, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, peritoneal dialysis, end stage renal disease

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Atrial fibrillation in severe and end stage renal disease: from oral anticoagulation therapy to percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion


Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia in the general population and its prevalence increases with age. The prevalence and incidence of AF is high in patients with chronic kidney failure (CKD). The most important complication associated with AF, both in the general population and in that with CKD, is thromboembolic stroke. For this reason, in patients with AF, the Guidelines indicate oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for thromboembolic risk prevention. Patients with severe CKD and, in particular, with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing renal replacement therapy, often have both a high thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risk and therefore present both an indication and a contraindication to OAT. In addition, patients with severe or ESRD were excluded from trials that showed the efficacy of different antithrombotic drugs in patients with AF. Thus there is no evidence of the effectiveness of OAT in this population. This review deals with the issues related to OAT in patients with severe or end stage CKD and the possible use of percutaneous closure of the left auricula (LAAO), recently proposed as an alternative in patients with an absolute contraindication of OAT in this population.

Key words

Atrial fibrillation; oral anticoagulant therapy; bleeding; severe chronic kidney disease; end stage renal disease; left atrial appendage occlusion.

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Lista delle abbreviazioni

AF Atrial Fibrillation

C-G Cockroft-Gault

CKD Chronic Kidney Disease 

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