Purpose: According to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, aminoglycosides (AG) can be administered together with a β-lactam in patients with septic shock. Some authors propose administering a single dose of an AG combined with a β-lactam antibiotic in septic patients to extend the spectrum of antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study has been to investigate whether a single shot of AG when septic patients present at the Emergency Department (ED) is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients based on a 3-year internal registry of septic patients visited in the Emergency Department (ED) of Pordenone Hospital. We compared the patients treated with a single dose of gentamicin (in addition to the β-lactam) and those who had not been treated to verify AKI incidence.
Results: 355 patients were enrolled. The median age was 71 years (IQR 60-78). Less than 1% of the patients had a chronic renal disease. The most frequent infection source was the urinary tract (31%), followed by intra-abdominal and lower respiratory tract infections (15% for both). 131 patients received gentamicin. Unmatched data showed a significant difference between the two groups in AKI (79/131, 60.3% versus 102/224, 45.5%; p=0.010) and in infectious disease specialist’s consultation (77/131, 59% versus 93/224, 41.5%; p=0.002). However, after propensity score matching, no significant difference was found.
Conclusion: Our experience shows that a single-shot administration of gentamicin upon admission to the ED does not determine an increased incidence of AKI in septic patients.
Keywords: aminoglycosides, acute kidney injury, gentamicin, safety, sepsis