Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers globally, ranking 9th and 14th among men and women, respectively. Advances in diagnostic techniques have enabled earlier and potentially less invasive interventions, however, this progress poses a challenge in managing low-malignancy tumors that were previously undiagnosed. To navigate treatment pathways, a deep understanding of the bidirectional relationship between Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is essential, influenced by risk factors such as hypertension and obesity.
The debate between partial (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) continues to be fueled by a rich body of studies in the last two decades, aiming to determine the precise benefits of renal function preservation and overall survival. However, long-term monitoring remains inadequate. There is an urgent need for heightened clinical vigilance, urging meticulous periodic evaluations that include both eGFR and the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, to identify potential deteriorations early.
Furthermore, non-neoplastic renal parenchyma requires equal attention, often overshadowed by the assessment of tumor mass. A nuanced analysis is necessary to identify a range of nephropathies that guide more effective therapeutic strategies. A collaborative strategy that brings nephrologists, urologists, nuclear radiologists, oncologists, and pathologists together on a unified platform, focusing on a personalized medicine approach grounded on a profound analysis of individual risk factors, is pivotal in shaping the future of management and prevention strategies.
This approach ensures a detailed therapeutic outlook and facilitates early interventions, marrying vigilance with interdisciplinary cooperation, thereby guarding against late diagnoses and offering patients a robust shield in their battle against kidney afflictions.
Keywords: renal cancer, acute kidney injury, acute kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, chemotherapy, targeted anticancer agents