La dialisi peritoneale nell’anziano

Abstract

In questo lavoro abbiamo analizzato l’utilizzo della dialisi peritoneale (DP) nei pazienti anziani relativamente ai seguenti aspetti: risultati della metodica, barriere alla DP e DP assistita.

La DP, salvo poche eccezioni, a livello nazionale o di centro, è utilizzata meno negli anziani. Rispetto all’emodialisi (HD), i dati di registro evidenziano una sopravvivenza uguale o superiore nei pazienti giovani in DP, uguale o inferiore negli anziani. Più del 50% degli studi riporta una sopravvivenza della tecnica peggiore in DP con l’aumento dell’età; nei rimanenti studi essa è uguale o migliore. Il rischio di peritonite non è maggiore negli anziani, in cui tuttavia questa complicanza può avere un decorso più grave. Diversi studi, infine, non evidenziano differenze significative nella Qualità di Vita tra DP ed HD, nei pazienti che hanno potuto scegliere tra le due metodiche.

All’aumentare dell’età aumentano le comorbilità e si riduce l’autonomia; per tale ragione negli anziani sono presenti un maggior numero di barriere sociali, fisiche, cognitive e psicologiche all’autogestione della DP. La DP assistita consente di superare in modo efficace queste barriere, con risultati adeguati in termini di giorni di ricovero, mortalità, sopravvivenza della tecnica ed incidenza di peritoniti.

Nella nostra esperienza, la videodialisi (VD) è un sistema di telemedicina affidabile, sicuro e facilmente utilizzabile da utenti senza alcuna conoscenza tecnologica per realizzare un “caregiver virtuale” che consente d’iniziare o continuare la DP quando sono presenti barriere. Essa è anche in grado di favorire l’empowerment del paziente, evitando il ricorso a forme assistenziali a più elevato costo sociale ed economico.

Parole chiave: Dialisi Peritoneale, Dialisi Peritoneale assistita, Pazienti anziani, Barriere all’autogestione, Videodialisi

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Peritoneal dialysis catheter infection with abscess of the abdominal wall in a ADPKD patient

Abstract

Infections to the peritoneal catheter are common in Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). We report the clinical case of a 49-year-old male patient in PD, who showed an atypical manifestation of tunnel infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The infection was characterized by a little abscess, on the left pararectal abdominal line, 6 cm far from exit-site of the peritoneal catheter. The diagnosis was made using ultrasonography (US), which showed a fistulous communication from subcutaneous cuff to the skin. We treated the infection conservatively by performing cuff-shaving and drainage of the abscess, associated to antibiotic therapy (teicoplanin). Due to the persistence of the infection, we added oral and topical rifampicin, and advanced medication with freez-dried collagen plant impregnated with extended-release gentamicin. The complete resolution of the infection allowed us to avoid removing the catheter.

 

KEY WORDS: Peritoneal Dialysis, peritoneal catheter infection, cuff-shaving

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Peritoneal Dialysis in Italy: the 6th GSDP-SIN census 2016

Abstract

Objectives. We report here the results of the 6th National Census (Cs-16) of Peritoneal Dialysis in Italy, carried out in 2017-18 by the Italian Society of Nephrology’s Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group and relating to 2016.

Methods. The Census was conducted using an on-line questionnaire administered to the 237 non pediatric centers which did perform Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) in 2016. The results have been compared with the previous Censuses carried out since 2005.

Results. Incidence: In 2016, 1,595 patients (CAPD=56.1%) started on PD (1st treatment for ESRD) and 4,607 on hemodialysis (HD). PD was started incrementally by 32.5% in 144 Centers. 15.6% were late referrals, and 5.1% began within 48-72 hours of insertion. The catheter was positioned exclusively by a Nephrologist in 24.3% of cases. Prevalence: Patients on PD on 31/12/2016 were 4,607 (CAPD=46.6%), with 22.2% of prevalent patients on assisted PD (family member caregiver: 80.5%). Out: In 2016, PD dropout rate (ep/100 pt-yrs: 12.5 to HD; 11.8 death; 7.0 Tx) has not changed. The main cause of transfer to HD remains peritonitis (23.8%), although it is still decreasing (Cs-05: 37.9%). Peritonitis/EPS: The incidence of peritonitis in 2016 was 0.211 ep/pt-yr (939 episodes). The incidence of new cases of EPS in 2015-16 is diminishing too (16 cases=0.176 ep/100 pt-yrs). Other results: In 2016 the number of Centers using 3.86% for the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) (49.8%) increased, and the Centers carrying out home visits diminished (51.5%).

Conclusions. Cs-16 confirms that PD in Italy is having good results.

Keywords: Peritoneal Dialysis, technique failure, incremental Peritoneal Dialysis, peritonitis, home visits, peritoneal equilibration test (PET)

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Infected hepatic cyst in ADPKD patient in peritoneal dialysis

Abstract

Renal and hepatic cysts infections are among the most important infectious complications of ADPKD and often require hospitalization. Liver cysts are even more complex than renal cysts and their diagnosis and treatment are quite controversial.

We report the case of a 58-year-old patient with ADPKD undergoing peritoneal dialysis treatment. He presented fever and severe asthenia and was diagnosed with a hepatic cyst infection. Given the presence of the peritoneal catheter, and in order to facilitate the targeted treatment of the infection, we administered antibiotics (ceftazidime and teicoplanin) in the bags used for peritoneal dialysis exchanges for 4 weeks, obtaining the complete disappearance of symptoms and laboratory and ultrasound alterations.

Intraperitoneal antibiotics administration in the treatment of infected hepatic cysts represents an effective and safe therapeutic alternative, never described in literature so far.

 

Keywords: ADPKD, ESRD, Infected hepatic cyst, peritoneal dialysis

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

PD in Italy: the 5th GSDP-SIN Census 2014

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To know PD modalities and results in Italy.

METHODS

The Census was carried out by means of an on-line questionnaire in ALL the 225 non-pediatric public centers which PERFORMED PD in 2014. The results were compared with those of previous Censuses (2005:Cs-05; 2008:Cs-08; 2010:Cs-10; 2012:Cs-12).

RESULTS

Incidence. In 2014 PD was begun (first treatment for ESRD) by 1,652 pts (CAPD: 57.2%) and HD by 4,442 pts (%PD-incidence= Cs-14: 27,1%; Cs-12: 23.4%; Cs-10: 23.3%; Cs-08: 22.8%; Cs-05: 24.2%). For the first time Incremental PD does not increase (Cs-14: 27,5%; Cs-12: 28,8%; Cs-10: 22,8%; Cs-08: 18,3%; Cs-05: 11,9%).

Prevalence. At 31/12/2014 there were 4,480 patients on PD (CAPD: 46.9%) (%PD-prevalence= Cs-14: Cs-12: 17.1%; Cs-10: 16.6%; Cs-08: 16.7%; Cs-05:16.8%; p=NS), 24.3% of whom were on assisted PD (family members: 83.6%; paid caregivers: 11.5%; nurses: 1.1%; NH: 2.8%).

Out. In 2014 there was no change in the PD drop-out rate (32.0 ep/100yrs-pt) (death: 502; transplant: 329; switch to HD: 528 pts). The main reason for transferring to HD remained peritonitis (24.8%). Choice (9.3%) and impossibility to continue PD (15.2%) are increasing.

Peritonitis. The peritonitis rate (953 episodes) was 0.224 ep/yrs-pt. The incidence of new cases of EPS in 2013-14 (39 cases=0.444 ep/100yrs-pt) is decreasing (2011-12= 0.505; 2009-10= 0.529; 2004-08= 0.701 ep/100-yrs-pt).

Other results. Compared to 2012, in 2014 the number of Centers using 3.86% for PET increased (41.3%) (Cs-12: 30.8%; Cs-10: 15.6%; p<0.001), while the number carrying out home visits (59.6%) remained unchanged (56.3% in 2012, 59.4% in 2010). CONCLUSIONS

Cs-14 confirms the extensive use, stability and good results of PD in Italy. Incremental PD and assisted PD are unchanged, peritonitis are decreased and EPS remains a rare event. PET-3.86% is increasingly used.

Keywords: Peritoneal Dialysis, Technique failure, Incremental peritoneal dialysis, assisted PD, peritonitis, home visit, PET (peritoneal equilibration test)

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

CKD-MBD in Peritoneal Dialysis

Abstract

CKD-MBD is a systemic disorder of the mineral and bone metabolism as a result of CKD. The clinical relevance of this syndrome has led to the identification of the biochemical targets to be achieved in order to improve the outcome of the patient. However, in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (DP) patients, these targets are not reached. Hyperphosphatemia is a predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In DP the removal of phosphorus (P) occurs by diffusion and convection, with a contribution of ultrafiltration of about 11%. P clearance is time dependent, with differences between CAPD and APD and depending on membrane transport characteristics. Residual renal function plays a key role in the P balance. Calcium (Ca) clearance in PD depends on the calcium levels, calcium concentration in dialysate and ultrafiltration. Positive Ca balance brings to Adynamic Bone Disease. Several bone-derived substances, some of them with hormonal action, have shed new light on the bone- cardiac axis. The hormonal functions of bone are likely to be related to histological lesions that develop during chronic renal failure. Compared to the past, recent data show less obvious differences in bone histomorphometry parameters between HD patients and PD patients. However, in PD patients fewer fractures are reported, probably due to different bone quality.

Key Words: CKD-MBD, peritoneal dialysis, calcium, phosphorus, Adynamic Bone Disease

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Clinical practice for the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias in patients on renal replacement therapy: data from a Lombard survey

Abstract

Among dialysis patients, 40% of deaths are due to cardiovascular causes, and 60% of cardiac deaths are due to an arrhythmia. The purpose of this survey, carried out with the organizational support of the Lombard Section of the Italian Society of Nephrology, is to evaluate the frequency and mode of use of non-invasive instruments for the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias in the dialysis centers of Lombardy. Information on the prevalence and type of cardiac devices at December 1, 2016 in this population was also required. Data from 18 centers were collected for a total of 3395 patients in replacement renal therapy, including 2907 (85.6%) in hemodialysis and 488 (14.4%) in peritoneal dialysis. All centers use the 12-lead ECG in case of evocative symptoms of an arrhythmic event and 2/3 perform the exam with programmed cadence (usually once a year). Twenty four-hour ECG Holter is not used as a routine diagnostic tool. The proportion of cardiac devices is relatively high, compared to literature data: n=259, equal to 7.6% of the population. Pace-Maker patients are 166 (4.9%), those with intracardiac defibrillator 52 (1.5%), those with resynchronization therapy 18 (0.5%) and those with resynchronization therapy and intracardiac defibrillator 23 (0.7%). The survey provides interesting information and can be an important starting point for trying to optimize clinical practice and collaboration between nephrologists and cardiologists in front of a major problem like that of arrhythmic disease in patients on renal replacement therapy.

KEYWORDS: Arrhythmias, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, cardiac devices.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

PD in Italy: The 4th GSDP-SIN census 2012

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To know PD modalities and results in Italy.

METHODS The Census was carried out by means of an on-line questionnaire in all the 224 non-pediatric public centers which performed PD in 2012. The results were compared with those of previous Censuses.

RESULTS

Incidence. In 2012 PD was begun (first treatment for ESRD) by 1,433 pts (CAPD: 54.3%) and HD by 4,700 pts (%PD-incidence= Cs-12: 23.4%; Cs-10: 23.3%; Cs-08: 22.8%; Cs-05: 24.2%; p=NS), with a further increase in incremental PD (Cs-12: 28.8%; Cs-10: 22.8%; Cs-08: 18.3%; Cs-05: 11.9%; p<0.001).

Prevalence. At 31/12/12 there were 4,299 patients on PD (CAPD: 46.1%) (%PD-prevalence= Cs-12: 17.1%; Cs-10: 16.6%; Cs-08: 16.7%; Cs-05:16.8%; p=NS), 24.5% of whom were on assisted PD (family members: 82.3%; paid caregivers: 12.4%; nurses: 0.7%;  NH: 3.0%).

Out. In 2012 there was no change in the PD drop-out rate (30.9 ep/100yrs-pt) (death: 481; transplant: 290; switch to HD: 511 pts). The main reason for transferring to HD remained peritonitis (28.2%).

Peritonitis. The peritonitis rate (1,179 episodes) was 0.284 ep/yrs-pt.

EPS. The incidence of new cases of EPS in 2011-12 (43 cases=0.505 ep/100yrs-pt) remained unchanged (2009-10= 0.529; 2004-08= 0.701 ep/100-yrs-pt).

Other results. Compared to 2010, in 2012 the number of Centers using 3.86% for PET increased (30.8% vs 15.6%-p<0.001), while the number carrying out home visits remained unchanged (56.3 vs 59.4%).

CONCLUSIONS Cs-12 confirms the extensive use, stability and good results of PD in Italy. Incremental PD is on the increase. EPS remains a rare event.

Key words: Assisted Pd, Home Visit, Incremental Peritoneal Dialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, Peritonitis, Technique Failure

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.