Practical approach to patient therapy affected by Autosomal Dominant Autosomic Polycystic Kidney Disease

Abstract

The Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease(ADPKD) is the most frequent renal genetic condition and involves 7 to 10% of subjects undergoing renal replacement therapy. It is estimated that between 24,000 and 34,000 subjects in Italy are affected by this condition. For an illness that has long been neglected due to a lack of treatment options, an attractive treatment possibility is now available: tolvaptan has shown clinical efficacy regarding disease progression in two clinical trials (ADPKD patients with mild renal failure and ADPKD patients with advanced renal failure). The possible liver toxicity expressed in about 4% of the subjects exposed to the drug and an important aquaretic effect suggest prudence and attention in the use of this new molecule. Based on these critical points, some clinicians with direct experience in the use of the drug have briefly collected in the pages to follow the main clinical recommendations for the treatment of ADPKD patients. The recommendations concern the general approach to the patient affected by ADPKD but with particular attention to the aspects related to the new treatment. The delicate task of introducing the opportunities and limitations of the offered therapy to the patient will be deepened. Finally, the document wants to suggest how best to organize a clinic dedicated to this condition.

Keywords: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, Renal failure, Cyst, Aneurysm, tolvaptan

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Renal Infarction: multicentric cases in Piedmont

Abstract

We describe factors associated to renal infarction, clinical, instrumental and laboratoristic features, and therapeutic strategies too.

This is an observational, review and polycentric study of cases in Nephrologic Units in Piedmont during 2013-2015, with diagnosis of renal infarction by Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA).

We collected 48 cases (25 M, age 57±16i; 23 F age 70±18, p = 0.007), subdivided in 3 groups based on etiology: group 1: cardio-embolic (n=19) ; group 2: coagulation abnormalities (n= 9); group 3: other causes or idiopathic (n=20).

Median time from symptoms to diagnosis, known only in 38 cases, was 2 days (range 2 hours- 8 days). Symptoms of clinical presentation were: fever (67%), arterial hypertension (58%), abdominal o lumbar pain (54%), nausea/vomiting (58%), neurological symptoms (12%), gross hematuria (10%).

LDH were increased (>530 UI/ml) in 96% of cases (45 cases out of 47), PCR (>0.5 mg/dl) in 94% of cases (45 out of 48), and eGFR <60 ml/min in 56% of cases (27 out of 48). Comparison of the various characteristics of the three groups shows: significantly older age (p=0.0001) in group 1 (76±12 years) vs group 2 (54±17 years) and group 3 (56±17 years); significantly more frequent cigarette smoking (p = 0.01) in group 2 (67%; 5 cases out of 9) and group 3 (60%; 12 cases out of 20) than group 1 (17%). No case has been subjected to endovascular thrombolysis. In 40 out of 48 cases, anticoagulant therapy was performed after diagnosis: in 12 (32%) cases no treatment, in 12 cases (30%) heparin, in 8 cases (20%) low molecular weight heparin, in 4 cases (10%) oral anticoagulants, in 3 cases fondaparinux (7%), in 1 case (2%) dermatan sulfate. Conclusions: Although some characteristics may guide the diagnosis, latency between onset and diagnosis is still moderately high and is likely to affect timely therapy. Keywords: renal infarction, kidney failure, atrial fibrillation, coagulopathy

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Hyperkalemia as a limiting factor in the use of drugs that block the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS)

Abstract

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors and ARBs have shown real efficacy in reducing blood pressure, proteinuria, in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (MRC) and in clinical improvement. in patients with heart failure, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. However, their use is limited by some side effects such as the increase in serum potassium (K), which can be particularly severe in patients with renal insufficiency. In the 23,000 patients followed by the PIRP project of the Emilia-Romagna Region, hyperkalaemia at the first visit (K> 5.5 mEq / L) was present in about 7% of all patients. The prevalence of K values> 5.5 mEq / L increased in relation to the CKD stage, reaching 11% in patients in stage 4 and 5. Among patients with values ​​of K> 5.5 at baseline, 44.8% were in therapy with ACE-I / ARB inhibitors, 3.8% with anti-mineralcortoid and a further 3.9% concurrently taking SRAA-blocking agents and K-sparing diuretics. Counter-measures to avoid the onset of hyperkalemia during treatment with drugs that block the RAAS range from the low-K diet, to diuretics and finally to drugs that promote fecal elimination of K. Among these, polystyrene sulfonates, which have more than 50 years of life, exchange K with sodium or calcium. These drugs, however, in chronic use, can lead to sodium or calcium overload and cause dangerous intestinal necrosis. Recently two new highly promising drugs have been introduced on the market for the treatment of hyperkalemia, the patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate. The patiromer, which is a potassium-calcium exchanger, acts at the level of the colon where there is a higher concentration of K and where the drug is most ionized. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) is a resin with micropores of well-defined dimensions, placed in the crystalline structure of the zirconium silicate. The trapped K is exchanged with other protons and sodium. However, even these drugs will have to demonstrate their long-term efficacy and safety to be considered true partners of RAAS blockers in some categories of patients.

Key words: potassium, hyperkalemia, ARB, ace-inhibitors, renal failure, patiromer, sodium zieconium cyclosylate, ZS-9, kayexalate

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Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Kidney failure: a case report

Abstract

Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a rare multi-systemic disease with autosomal recessive transmission. BBS was at first considered to be homogeneous as for its genetics, but subsequent studies have shown an extensive gene variability. Currently, 21 genes (BBS1-21) present on different chromosomes have been mapped: these genes are responsible for BBS phenotypes and they show a great heterogeneity of mutations.The most common genes are BBS1 (locus 11q13) and BBS10.We show here the case of a 50 year old patient with BBS. Medical History: retinitis pigmentosa at 4 years of age evolved to complete blindness, generalized epilepsy crises, poly-syndactyly, left-hand malformation. In April 1986 developed an epileptic episode: on that occasion Chronic Kidney Failure (CKF) diagnosis and starting of haemodialysis. In 1989, hospitalization for epileptic seizures. In 2009 the patient underwent kidney transplantation from deceased donor. Immunosuppressive initial protocol: Basiliximab, Azathioprine, Tacrolimus, Steroid, and Tacrolimus, Azathioprine, Steroid at hospital discharge. Post-operative care complicated by respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation assistance. During hospitalization, the neurological picture remained stable. At hospital discharge Creatinine 1.8 mg/dl. Subsequently, immunosuppressant were gradually tapered until monotherapy with Tacrolimus. At present the patient’s conditions appear to be good, renal function has remained substantially stable with Creatinine between 1.4-1.5 mg/dl and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated at 39-42 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to MDRD study Equation. This case shows the possibility to successfully manage a BBS-affected uremic patient, despite the complexity of the pathology and the aggravating factor of extreme rarity in diagnostic pathway.

 

Keywords: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), renal failure, renal transplantation

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Dystrophic Calcinosis Cutis: a rare fearsome issue of Chronic Kidney Disease

Abstract

Disorders of calcium-phosphate-parathormone balance, are very important issues in ESRD patients, that may lead to severe complications, as dystrophic calcinosis cutis, a rare disease, caused by calcium salt deposits in cutaneous or subcutaneous tissues and many organs.

We present the case of a 47 years old woman, in ESRD due to membranous glomerulopathy, treated by peritoneal dialysis, who, after 7 months of dialysis, developed painful masses on second finger and fifth metacarpus of the right hand.

Laboratory and instrumental data showed hyperparathyroidism with a parathyroid mass consistent with adenoma.

Increasing of therapy with phosphate binders and cinacalcet only, was not effective to solve cutaneous masses, that were biopsied. Histological exam revealed deposition of amorphic material with calcific component, consistent with cutaneous dystrophic calcinosis.

We further increased dialysis and therapy and we observed complete regression of masses in 2 months.

 

Key words: dystrophic calcinosis cutis, end stage renale disease, calcium-phosphate metabolism, dialysis

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