Use of ultrasounds in PD catheter-related infections: indications and clinical implications

Abstract

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) related infections continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undertaking renal replacement therapy with PD. Nevertheless, despite the great effort invested in the prevention of PD infective episodes, almost one third of technical failures are still caused by peritonitis. Recent studies support the idea that there is a direct role of exit-site (ESIs) and tunnel infections (TIs) in causing peritonitis. Hence, both the prompt ESI/TI diagnosis and correct prognostic hypothesis would allow the timely start of an appropriate antibiotic therapy decreasing the associated complications and preserving the PD technique.

The ultrasound exam (US) is a simple, rapid, non-invasive and widely available procedure for the tunnel evaluation in PD catheter-related infections.

In case of ESI, the US possesses a greater sensibility in diagnosing a simultaneous TI compared to the clinical criterions. This peculiarity allows to distinguish the ESI episodes which will be healed with antibiotic therapy from those refractories to medical therapy. In case of TI, the US permits to localize the catheter portion involved in the infectious process obtaining significant prognostic information; while the US repetition after two weeks of antibiotic allows to monitor the patient responsiveness to the therapy.

There is no evidence of the US usefulness as screening tool aimed to the precocious diagnosis of TI in asymptomatic PD patients.

 

Keywords: peritoneal dialysis, exit-site infection, tunnel infection, peritonitis, ultrasounds, Tenckhoff catheter.

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Introduzione

Gli episodi infettivi continuano a rappresentare la causa principale di morbilità e mortalità nei pazienti sottoposti a terapia sostitutiva mediante dialisi peritoneale (DP) [13]. Nelle ultime tre decadi considerevoli sforzi sono stati compiuti nella prevenzione delle infezioni correlate alla DP: il miglioramento dei metodi di connessione [4], l’ottimizzazione della cura dell’exit-site (ES) [5], e la creazione di specifici percorsi per l’addestramento dei pazienti [6]. Nonostante l’adozione di queste misure circa un terzo dei fallimenti della DP sono secondari a peritoniti [7].
 

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PD in Italy: the 5th GSDP-SIN Census 2014

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To know PD modalities and results in Italy.

METHODS

The Census was carried out by means of an on-line questionnaire in ALL the 225 non-pediatric public centers which PERFORMED PD in 2014. The results were compared with those of previous Censuses (2005:Cs-05; 2008:Cs-08; 2010:Cs-10; 2012:Cs-12).

RESULTS

Incidence. In 2014 PD was begun (first treatment for ESRD) by 1,652 pts (CAPD: 57.2%) and HD by 4,442 pts (%PD-incidence= Cs-14: 27,1%; Cs-12: 23.4%; Cs-10: 23.3%; Cs-08: 22.8%; Cs-05: 24.2%). For the first time Incremental PD does not increase (Cs-14: 27,5%; Cs-12: 28,8%; Cs-10: 22,8%; Cs-08: 18,3%; Cs-05: 11,9%).

Prevalence. At 31/12/2014 there were 4,480 patients on PD (CAPD: 46.9%) (%PD-prevalence= Cs-14: Cs-12: 17.1%; Cs-10: 16.6%; Cs-08: 16.7%; Cs-05:16.8%; p=NS), 24.3% of whom were on assisted PD (family members: 83.6%; paid caregivers: 11.5%; nurses: 1.1%; NH: 2.8%).

Out. In 2014 there was no change in the PD drop-out rate (32.0 ep/100yrs-pt) (death: 502; transplant: 329; switch to HD: 528 pts). The main reason for transferring to HD remained peritonitis (24.8%). Choice (9.3%) and impossibility to continue PD (15.2%) are increasing.

Peritonitis. The peritonitis rate (953 episodes) was 0.224 ep/yrs-pt. The incidence of new cases of EPS in 2013-14 (39 cases=0.444 ep/100yrs-pt) is decreasing (2011-12= 0.505; 2009-10= 0.529; 2004-08= 0.701 ep/100-yrs-pt).

Other results. Compared to 2012, in 2014 the number of Centers using 3.86% for PET increased (41.3%) (Cs-12: 30.8%; Cs-10: 15.6%; p<0.001), while the number carrying out home visits (59.6%) remained unchanged (56.3% in 2012, 59.4% in 2010). CONCLUSIONS

Cs-14 confirms the extensive use, stability and good results of PD in Italy. Incremental PD and assisted PD are unchanged, peritonitis are decreased and EPS remains a rare event. PET-3.86% is increasingly used.

Keywords: Peritoneal Dialysis, Technique failure, Incremental peritoneal dialysis, assisted PD, peritonitis, home visit, PET (peritoneal equilibration test)

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INTRODUZIONE

L’utilizzo della dialisi peritoneale (PD) in Italia nel 2013 è risultato sostanzialmente stabile e limitato ad una incidenza del 13,2% ed una prevalenza inferiore al 9,6% (1) se si considerano tutti i Centri Dialisi, anche quelli che non utilizzano la metodica. Invariata anche la notevole variabilità da regione a regione e da centro a centro (25). L’utilizzo della DP viene rilevato dal Gruppo di Studio della DP (GSDP) della Società Italiana di Nefrologia (SIN) mediante un Censimento, condotto ogni 2 anni, di tutti i Centri che utilizzano la DP.

In questo report sono presentati i risultati della 5° edizione condotta nel 2016 e relativa all’anno 2014 (Cens-14) confrontandoli con quelli degli anni precedenti: 2005 (Cens-05), 2008 (Cens-08) (3), 2010 (4), 2012 (Cens-12) (5).

  

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PD in Italy: The 4th GSDP-SIN census 2012

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To know PD modalities and results in Italy.

METHODS The Census was carried out by means of an on-line questionnaire in all the 224 non-pediatric public centers which performed PD in 2012. The results were compared with those of previous Censuses.

RESULTS

Incidence. In 2012 PD was begun (first treatment for ESRD) by 1,433 pts (CAPD: 54.3%) and HD by 4,700 pts (%PD-incidence= Cs-12: 23.4%; Cs-10: 23.3%; Cs-08: 22.8%; Cs-05: 24.2%; p=NS), with a further increase in incremental PD (Cs-12: 28.8%; Cs-10: 22.8%; Cs-08: 18.3%; Cs-05: 11.9%; p<0.001).

Prevalence. At 31/12/12 there were 4,299 patients on PD (CAPD: 46.1%) (%PD-prevalence= Cs-12: 17.1%; Cs-10: 16.6%; Cs-08: 16.7%; Cs-05:16.8%; p=NS), 24.5% of whom were on assisted PD (family members: 82.3%; paid caregivers: 12.4%; nurses: 0.7%;  NH: 3.0%).

Out. In 2012 there was no change in the PD drop-out rate (30.9 ep/100yrs-pt) (death: 481; transplant: 290; switch to HD: 511 pts). The main reason for transferring to HD remained peritonitis (28.2%).

Peritonitis. The peritonitis rate (1,179 episodes) was 0.284 ep/yrs-pt.

EPS. The incidence of new cases of EPS in 2011-12 (43 cases=0.505 ep/100yrs-pt) remained unchanged (2009-10= 0.529; 2004-08= 0.701 ep/100-yrs-pt).

Other results. Compared to 2010, in 2012 the number of Centers using 3.86% for PET increased (30.8% vs 15.6%-p<0.001), while the number carrying out home visits remained unchanged (56.3 vs 59.4%).

CONCLUSIONS Cs-12 confirms the extensive use, stability and good results of PD in Italy. Incremental PD is on the increase. EPS remains a rare event.

Key words: Assisted Pd, Home Visit, Incremental Peritoneal Dialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, Peritonitis, Technique Failure

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

INTRODUZIONE

L’utilizzo della dialisi peritoneale (DP) in Italia è risultato confinato, nel 2012, ad una incidenza del 12,8% ed una prevalenza del 9,8% (1) se si considerano tutti i Centri Dialisi, anche quelli che non utilizzano la metodica, ed è rimasta sostanzialmente stabile negli ultimi anni, sempre comunque con una notevole variabilità da regione a regione e da centro a centro (2). L’utilizzo della DP viene rilevato dal Gruppo di Studio della DP (GSDP) della Società Italiana di Nefrologia (SIN) mediante un Censimento, condotto ogni 2 anni, di tutti i Centri che utilizzano la DP.

In questo report sono presentati i risultati dell’edizione condotta nel 2013-14 e relativa all’anno 2012 (Cens-12), confrontati con quelli degli anni precedenti: 2005 (Cens-05) e 2008 (Cens-08) (3), 2010 (4) e con i dati internazionali.
 

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