Minimal change disease during lithium therapy: case report

Abstract

Lithium is a largely used and effective therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its toxic effects on kidneys are mostly diabetes insipidus, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Also, a correlation between lithium and minimal change disease has sometimes been described.

We report here the case of a patient with severe bipolar disorder on lithium therapy who, without any pre-existing nephropathy, developed nephrotic syndrome and AKI with histopathologic findings pointing to minimal change disease.

The patient was treated with symptomatic therapy; the discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in the remission of AKI and of the nephrotic syndrome, thus suggesting a close relationship between lithium and minimal change disease.

 

Keywords: minimal change disease, lithium, nephrotic syndrome

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Introduzione

La glomerulonefrite a lesioni minime è una delle principali cause di sindrome nefrosica idiopatica. Nella popolazione adulta rappresenta circa il 15% dei casi di sindrome nefrosica idiopatica, rappresentandone la terza causa, in ordine di importanza, dopo la glomerulonefrite membranosa e la sclerosi segmentaria e focale [1, 2, 3].  

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Steroid and cyclosporine therapy in idiopathic membranous nephropathy: monocentric experience and literature review

Abstract

Introduction: Immunosuppressive treatment of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is debated due to its possible side effects. The 2012 KDIGO guidelines suggest alkylating agents as first choice therapy. The aim of the study is to retrospectively evaluate the induction and maintenance of clinical remission in patients with histological diagnosis of IMN undergoing steroid and/or cyclosporine therapy at the Nephrology Unit of the Sant’Andrea Hospital in Rome.

Materials and methods: Therapy A (conservative) was reserved to low-risk patients. 8 medium and high risk patients were induced by Therapy B (Prednisone 1 mg / kg ≤12-16 weeks plus 8 weeks withdrawal); 6 patients by Therapy C (Prednisone 1 mg /kg ≥20-24 weeks plus 8 week withdrawal) and, finally, 6 steroid-resistent patients by Therapy D (steroid withdrawal + cyclosporine 3-5 mg / kg for 2 years).

Results: Complete remission was observed in 37.5% of patients in Therapy B, in 83.3% of patients in Therapy C and in 66.6% of patients in Therapy D. Patients in group B relapsed more frequently than patients in the other groups. Side effects were irrelevant.

Conclusions: In view of the potential cytotoxicity of alkylating agents, steroids are a valid alternative in inducing and maintaining clinical remission over time, when administered with a more aggressive induction scheme. In cases of steroid resistance or rapid relapse, cyclosporine is a valid alternative to alkylating agents.

 

Keywords: nephrotic syndrome, steroid therapy, cyclosporine, idiopathic membranous nephropathy

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

Introduzione

La nefropatia membranosa idiopatica (IMN) è la causa più comune di sindrome nefrosica nell’adulto e rappresenta circa il 15-36% di tutte le biopsie renali [1]. L’incidenza è maggiore dalla quarta decade di vita in poi, con un picco nella fascia d’età fra i 40 e i 60 anni, e si attesta attorno a 1,2-1,7 casi per 100.000 abitanti, con maggiore prevalenza nel sesso maschile (M:F = 2:1) [2]. Cause secondarie di nefropatia membranosa includono malattie autoimmuni, virus dell’epatite B e C, farmaci e tumori [3]. 

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Minimal Change Relapse During Pregnancy

Abstract

The appearance of nephrotic syndrome during pregnancy is considered an exceptional event, whose incidence is around 0.012-0.025% of all pregnancies, and it is even more rare when the cause is represented by minimal lesions glomerulonephritis. In this article we will describe the case of a patient with a histological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis with minimal lesions, tending to frequent relapses. She was in complete remission since 2013 after treatment with cyclosporine. suspended in May 2017. After few weeks she become pregnant, and the pregnancy was regular until the 23rd week. when a recurrence of nephrotic syndrome appears. She was treated with steroids bolus followed by oral steroid, and afterwards gave birth to a live fetus with spontaneous delivery at 37 weeksThe few data in the literature confirm that recurrence of glomerulonephritis due to minimal lesions in pregnancy should be treated rapidly with steroids, that can induce rapid remission and protect both the pregnant than the fetus from even serious damage.

Keywords: Minimal change nephropathy, pregnancy, nephrotic syndrome, steroid.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

INTRODUZIONE

La glomerulonefrite a lesioni minime è definita dalla normalità dei glomeruli all’esame in microscopia ottica, e dalla presenza all’esame ultrastrutturale glomerulare della fusione dei pedicelli dei podociti. La glomerulonefrite a lesioni minime si caratterizza per la presenza di proteinuria e per la sensibilità all’uso di steroidi.

 

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