Severe hyperkalemia in patients referred to an emergency departement: the role of antialdosterone drugs and of renin-angiotensin system blockers

Abstract

We analyzed the clinical features and the factors associated with the presence of hyperkalemia (serum potassium >5.3 mmol/L) in a cohort of patients presenting to an Emergency Department.

A total of 168 cases were observed (89 males and 79 females), mean age 77.5±12 years. Fifty-six patients were diabetics (33.3%), 51 patients had chronic kidney disease (30%) and 36 patients with cardiac failure (21.4%).

Sixty-nine patients (41%) were treated with RAS-blockers (ACE-I n = 50; ARBs, n = 19). 65 subjects were taking loop diuretics (39%), 17 (10%) thiazides. Thirty-one (18%) were assuming antialdosterone drugs; 16 (52%) out of these had a positive history of heart failure and 14 (41%) had a positive history of chronic kidney disease. In 85 cases (51%) patients were receiving an ACE/ARB or an antialdosterone drug. In 125 patients (74%) eGFR at presentation was <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Serum potassium values were significantly higher in patients treated with both ACE/ARB and antialdosterone drugs. In 20 cases (12%) serum potassium was ≥6.5 mmol/L; these patients assumed antialdosterone drugs more frequently, alone and mostly in association with ACE-I/ARBs (65% vs 7%; p<0.0001).

The simultaneous assumption of ACE-I/ARBs and antialdosterone drugs emerges as the major cause of severe hyperkalemia in our cases, thus confirming the warnings about this association in the presence of advanced age and reduced glomerular filtration rate.

Key words: ACE-inhibitors, antialdosterone drugs, arbs, chronic kidney disease, Hyperkalemia

Full text of the article is available in Italian.