Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder related to kidney. ADPKD is usually easy to diagnose in people who have a family history of ADPKD’s developing typical symptoms, including flank, abdominal pain or macroscopic hematuria. In this setting, diagnosis in adults at risk for ADPKD is commonly performed by ultrasonography, which reveals two enlarged kidneys with multiple bilateral cysts. ADPKD may be more difficult to diagnose in the absence of family history or in subjects with atypical presentation, including asymmetric or focal renal imaging findings, discordant disease within family, early onset of ADPKD and development of ESRD before 30 yr of age. The presence of “a total of three or more renal cysts” for at-risk subjects aged 15-39 years and “two cysts or more in each kidney” for at-risk subjects aged 40-59 years are sufficient for the diagnosis of ADPKD. The “absence of any renal cyst” is sufficient for disease exclusion only for at-risk subjects aged 40 years or older. If the family history is negative, the diagnosis of ADPKD can be made in a patient with enlarged kidneys, numerous cysts, presence of liver cysts and absence of findings suggesting a different cystic disease. If the imaging diagnosis is not clear or showing atypical manifestations in subjects, molecular genetic testing should be performed.
Full text of the article is available in Italian.