ADPKD and intracranial aneurysms: indications for screening, follow-up and clinical management

Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent hereditary nephropathy and is the fourth most common cause for end-stage renal disease in Europe. ADPKD is a systemic disease; besides the typical renal involvement, characterized by progressive cyst expansion leading to massive enlargement and distortion of the kidney architecture and, ultimately, to end-stage renal disease, multiple extrarenal manifestations can be observed included cysts in other organs, diverticulosis, cardiac valvulopathies, abdominal and inguinal hernias, vascular anomalies. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is one of the most serious complications in ADPKD patients. Aim of this review is to provide useful indications for the clinician to define the risk of intracranial aneurysms in ADPKD population, to identify screening criteria (which patients to screen, how often and with which diagnostic methods), to estimate the risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms, which may require intervention.

Keywords: ADPKD, intracranial aneurysms, screening, risk of rupture, treatment

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

Introduzione

La malattia renale policistica autosomica dominante dell’adulto (ADPKD) è la più comune nefropatia ereditaria, con una prevalenza stimata tra 1/1000 e 1/2500 individui [1,2]. L’ADPKD rappresenta la quarta causa di end-stage renal disease (ESRD) per incidenza e prevalenza [3] e si stima che in Europa un paziente in dialisi su 10 sia affetto da ADPKD [4]. In Italia vi sono almeno 32000 pazienti affetti da ADPKD [5,6].

Oltre al noto coinvolgimento renale, in pazienti ADPKD si possono osservare con frequenza variabile coinvolgimenti extrarenali: cisti in altri organi (fegato, pancreas, milza, vesciche seminali, membrana aracnoidea), diverticolosi, valvulopatie cardiache (es. prolasso mitralico), ernie della parete addominale ed inguinali, anomalie vascolari (es. aneurismi intracranici, dilatazione della radice aortica e dissezione dell’aorta toracica, occlusioni dell’arteria centrale retinica) [79].

 

La visualizzazione dell’intero documento è riservata a Soci attivi, devi essere registrato e aver eseguito la Login con utente e password.

Screening Test of Fabry Disease in Patients with Renal Replacement Therapy in the City of Modena

Abstract

Fabry disease is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disease, inherited in an X-linked manner, characterized by lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide due to deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Because the prevalence of this genetic disorder is unknown in the Emilia Romagna region, we conducted a screening study to assess the prevalence of Fabry disease in the city of Modena, Italy.

Material and Methods

A screening study has been conducted in patients on renal replacement therapy at University Hospital of Modena. Screening tests have been performed using dried blood spot method. Alpha-galactosidase A activity and Lyso-Gb3 levels were evaluated in peripheral blood of all men. In women test based on genetic analysis; Lyso-Gb3 was measured only in patients with mutation of gene GLA.

Results

Screening tests have been performed on 388 subjects: 181 maintenance hemodialysis patients, 166 kidney transplant recipients and 41 peritoneal dialysis patients. About 40% of the patients did not had etiological diagnosis of renal disease. Lyso-Gb3 was more specific test than α- galactosidase A (100% vs. 82.5%) to diagnose Fabry disease. We found two different mutations: c.13 A>G p.(Asn5Asp), a variant likely benign and c.937 G>T p.(Asp313Tyr) a variant of uncertain significance. Both the patients carrying these genetic mutations had no symptoms or medical history compatible with Fabry disease.

Conclusion

Identification of variant of uncertain significance such as c.937G>Tp.(Asp313Tyr) showed the limits of genetic analysis to diagnose an inherit disease. Further studies are need to assess the diagnostic value of Lyso-Gb3 for screening for Fabry disease.

KEYWORDS: Fabry Disease, Screening; Lyso-Gb3; c.13 A>G p. Asn5Asp; c.937 G>T p.(Asp313Tyr); D313Y; α-galactosidase A

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

Introduzione

La Malattia di Anderson Fabry è una malattia genetica legata al cromosoma X dovuta al deficit enzimatico dell’α-galattosidasi A per mutazioni del gene GLA (1). L’α-galattosidasi A è un enzima lisosomiale responsabile del metabolismo degli glicosfingolipidi. La sua carenza determina l’accumulo di globotriaosilceramidi (GL-3, Gb 3, CTH) nei lisosomi e di globotriaosilsfingosine (Lyso-GL-3, Lyso-Gb3) nel circolo ematico (2). 

La visualizzazione dell’intero documento è riservata a Soci attivi, devi essere registrato e aver eseguito la Login con utente e password.