Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) have significantly contributed to revolutionizing cancer treatment, as they are orally administered small molecules able to target key pathways involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. However, the clinical utility of TKIs may be compromised by adverse effects, which can affect tissues and organs, including kidneys. This comprehensive review offers a general overview of studies reporting the incidence and clinical characteristics of TKI-related nephrotoxicity and it explores the mechanisms underlying the intricate relationship between TKIs and renal toxicity. The biological rationale for the kidney manifestations of toxicity associated with TKI agents is here discussed, underlying potential off-target effects and emphasizing the importance of accurate risk assessment and tailored patient management strategies.
Deep insight into the molecular mechanisms of TKI nephrotoxicity will help to improve the global understanding of the pathophysiology of this peculiar toxicity and to develop more effective and safer therapies.
Keywords: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, kidney, renal toxicity, cancer