Antibiotics are a relatively common cause of acute kidney injury that occurs mainly in patients with underlying risk factors. Adverse reactions from antibiotics can be classified as type A when they are foreseeable, we know the cause and are often dose dependent and type B when they occur in an unpredictable way, are independent of the dose and due to hypersensitivity and / or immunoallergic phenomena. All compartments of the kidney are prone to antibiotic damage which, clinically, results in tubular dysfunction, acute renal failure, nephritic syndrome and chronic renal failure. The drugs most responsible are vancomycin, aminoglycosides and beta lactamines. The occurrence of acute renal failure correlates with the length of hospitalization and the risk of death. It therefore becomes of fundamental clinical importance to know the antibiotics with potential nephrotoxic effect in order to establish the dosage on the basis of renal function and correct all the factors that can enhance their toxicity.
Keywords: nephrotoxicity, direct antibiotics-related renal toxicity , antibiotics, adverse drug reactions