Amyloidosis represents a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by the deposit, in the form of fibrils, in the various organs and tissues of the body, of abnormal proteins; the deposits made up of these fibrils are called amyloid or amyloid substance. AL amyloidosis, also called “light chains”, is a primary form characterized by deposits of light chains of monoclonal immunoglobulins, proteins that are produced by the bone marrow with the aim of protecting the body from pathological processes; for unknown reasons, these immunoglobulins, once fulfilled their function, do not dissolve but, on the contrary, they transform into amyloid fibrils and accumulate progressively, transported by the bloodstream, in the various organs and tissues. Below we report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian male patient hospitalized at our Operative Unit for nephrotic syndrome and creatinine increase in the last couple of months, compared to previous normal tests. The patient underwent a renal biopsy and a bone marrow smear with evidence of AL amyloidosis (or primary amyloidosis) and of the presence, at serum immunofixation, of small IgG multiple myeloma k. Treated with bortezomib (1 mg/m2) and soldesam (10 mg) first and with lenalidomid after, the patient had a clinical course burdened by symptomatic hypotension, due to severe dysautonomia. He had to start replacement treatment with haemodiafiltration for terminal kidney disease two months after the onset of illness. He died 4 months after the first hospitalization for nephrotic syndrome.
Keywords: AL amyloidosis, multiple myeloma, renal failure, haemodiafiltration