The global coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required vaccination even in children to reduce infection.
We report on the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and minimal change disease (MCD) nephrotic syndrome (NS), shortly after the first injection BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech).
A 12-year-old previously healthy boy was referred to our hospital with complaints of peripheral edema and nephrotic range proteinuria.
Nine days earlier he had received his first injection BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech).
Seven days after injection, he developed leg edema, which rapidly progressed to anasarca with significant weight gain. On admission, serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dL and 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 4 grams with fluid overload.
As kidney function continued to decline over the next days, empirical steroid treatment and renal replacement therapy with ultrafiltration were started and kidney biopsy was performed.
Seven days after steroid therapy, kidney function began to improve, gradually returning to normal.
The association of MCD, nephrotic syndrome and AKI hasn’t been previously described following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in pediatric population, but this triad has been reported in adults.
We need further similar case reports to establish the real incidence of this possible vaccine side effect.
Keywords: nephrotic syndrome, Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, pediatric population