Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Several uremic toxins are also vascular toxins and may contribute to the increase of the cardiovascular risk through the development of aortic stiffening. In this process, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction play an important role. Considering that aortic stiffness is a known cardiovascular risk factor and a vascular biomarker involved in the development of chronic cardiac dysfunction, and that the reduction of aortic stiffness is associated with an improved survival of patients with end-stage kidney disease, we aim at reviewing the therapeutic options to reduce aortic stiffness and potentially the cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: arterial stiffness, cardiorenal syndrome, chronic kidney disease, inflammation, intima-media thickness, uremic toxins