Figure 17. (Left) David Hume (1917-1973). Encouraged by Francis D Moore chief of surgery at the Peter Bent Brigham hospital he began in 1951 a series of more than a dozen unrelated cadaver transplants, most done without any modification. Unlike the Paris transplants, which were placed in the pelvis, these were grafted into the thigh with a cutaneous ureterostomy. One functioned 5 ½ months, but all were rejected. (Right) Gordon Murray (1894-1976) of Toronto, a solitary and secretive, but brilliant and innovative cardiac surgeon who had developed and used an artificial kidney. He transplanted more than 4 uraemic patients in 1951-2. One of them was apparently well when lost to follow-up about 2 years later. Whether she made a spontaneous recovery from her nephrotic syndrome or not, is unclear.