The therapeutic landscape for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has undergone significant changes in recent years. In this Literature review, we offer a synopsis of the latest scientific evidence in this field. The introduction of a standard of care in the adjuvant setting, based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), was a breakthrough. The efficacy of this treatment, calculated as the relapse risk reduction, can vary depending on multiple factors, whose knowledge is important for the clinician in the therapeutic choice. Another innovation concerns the first-line therapy for metastatic RCC. In this setting, the new standard is represented by an immune combination, a therapy based either on a doublet of ICIs or on a combination between an ICI and one VEGFR-TKI. Making the best choice between the available options requires careful evaluation, in order to tailor the most appropriate treatment for each patient. The critical analysis of the most recent clinical trials is a fundamental tool to tailor the correct clinical management of localized and advanced RCC. Finally, this review focuses on the role of the nephrologist in the management of RCC patients, across different disease settings.
Keywords: Renal cancer, immunotherapy, tyrosin kinase-inhibitors