Factors Associated with Neonatal Arterial Hypertension: Case and Control Study


Background. Neonatal high blood pressure has been diagnosed more frequently in recent years, and its impact extends to adulthood. However, the knowledge gaps on associated factors, diagnosis, and treatment are challenging for medical personnel. The incidence of this condition varies depending on neonatal conditions. Patients in the Newborn Unit are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure. The persistence of this condition beyond the neonatal stage increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease in childhood and adulthood.
Methodology. A case-control study was carried out. It included hospitalized patients with neonatal hypertension as cases. Three controls were randomly selected for each case and matched by gestational age. The variables were analyzed based on their nature. Multivariate analysis was performed using a multivariate conditional regression model to identify variables associated with the outcome. Finally, the model was adjusted for possible confounders.
Results. 37 cases were obtained and matched with 111 controls. In the univariate analysis, heart disease (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.22-6.71), kidney disease (OR 7.24; 95% CI 1.92-28.28), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR 6.62; 95% CI 1.42-50.82) and major surgical procedures (OR 3.71; 95% CI 1.64-8.39) had an association with neonatal arterial hypertension. Only the latter maintained this finding in the multivariate analysis (adjusted OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.14-7.30). A significant association of two or more comorbidities with neonatal arterial hypertension was also found (OR 3.81; 95% CI 1.53-9.49).
Conclusions. The study analyzed the factors related to high blood pressure in hospitalized neonates, finding relevant associations in the said population. The importance of meticulous neonatal care and monitoring of risk factors such as birth weight and major surgeries is highlighted.

Keywords: Hypertension, Prematurity, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Epigenetics, Neonate, Prematurity, Kidney Disease, Blood Pressure


With technological advances in neonatal care, Newborn Units (NU) have undergone significant changes, increasing survival in low-weight patients due to prematurity or intrauterine growth retardation. Low birth weight (LBW) is determined to correspond to weights less than 2500 grams (Table 1).

Birth Weight
Less than 2500 g Low birth weight
Less than 1500 g Very low birth weight
Less than 1000 g Extremely low birth weight
Table 1. Low birth weight classifications. Adapted and translated from Atehortua et al. [1].


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