The therapeutic management and economic burden of patients with chronic kidney disease non-dialysis-dependent with anemia and ESA treated: findings from a real-world study in Italy

Abstract

Background. This real-world study aimed to provide insights on the characteristics, drug utilization, and economic burden of chronic kidney disease non-dialysis-dependent (NDD-CKD) patients with anemia prescribed Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA) in Italian clinical practice settings.
Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed based on administrative and laboratory databases covering around 1.5 million subjects across Italy. Adult patients with a record for NDD-CKD stage 3a-5 and anemia during 2014-2016 were identified. Eligibility to ESA was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 records of Hb < 11 g/dL over 6 months, and patients eligible and currently treated with ESA were included. Results. Overall, 101,143 NDD-CKD patients were screened for inclusion, of which 40,020 were anemic. A total of 25,360 anemic patients were eligible to ESA treatment and 3,238 (12.8%) were prescribed ESA and included. The mean age was 76.9 years and 51.1% was male. More frequently observed comorbidities were hypertension (over 90% in each stage), followed by diabetes (37.8-43.2%) and cardiovascular condition (20.5-28.9%). Adherence to ESA was observed in 47.9% of patients, with a downward trend while progressing across stages (from 65.8% stage 3a to 35% stage 5). A consistent proportion of patients did not have nephrology visits during the 2 years of follow-up. Costs were mainly due to all drugs (€4,391) followed by all-cause hospitalization (€3,591) and laboratory tests (€1,460).
Conclusions. Findings from the study highlight an under-use of ESA in the management of anemia in NDD-CKD as well as a sub-optimal adherence to ESA and showed a great economic burden for anemic NDD-CKD patients.

Keywords: anemia, administrative databases, Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA), chronic kidney disease (CKD), nephrology, real life

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Introduzione

L’anemia è una delle complicanze comunemente riscontrate nell’insufficienza renale cronica (IRC), una condizione che colpisce prevalentemente la popolazione anziana [1]; la sua prevalenza aumenta con il progredire degli stadi dell’IRC [2, 3], ed è stata osservata fin nel 60% di pazienti affetti da IRC non dipendente da dialisi (IRC-NDD) [4]. L’anemia nell’IRC è principalmente causata da una diminuzione nella produzione di eritropoietina (EPO) e dall’alterazione dei meccanismi di rilevazione dell’ossigeno dovute alla ridotta funzionalità renale [5]. Numerosi studi osservazionali hanno evidenziato un incremento del rischio di comorbilità (soprattutto riguardo le malattie cardiovascolari e il diabete) e di mortalità associato alla presenza di anemia nei pazienti IRC; tale rischio risulta maggiore negli stati anemici più severi [2, 5, 6].

Le supplementazioni di ferro e le terapie con i farmaci stimolanti l’eritropoiesi (Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents, ESA) rappresentano il trattamento cardine dell’anemia nell’IRC [79]. In particolare, le linee guida Internazionali raccomandano di iniziare un trattamento con ESA in caso di valori di emoglobina (hemoglobin, Hb) < 10 g/dL, mentre nella pratica clinica italiana il valore soglia utilizzato è Hb < 11 g/dL, come indicato dalla Società Italiana di Nefrologia [10] e definito nel Piano Terapeutico Italiano per la prescrizione di ESA [11, 12]. 

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Hyperuricaemia and chronic kidney disease

Abstract

Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid values greater than 6 mg/dl and could occur either due to hyperproduction or as a result of reduced renal excretion, which exceeds gut compensation. In Italy, prevalence is around 12% of the general population and increases in renal disease up to 60%. Recent experimental studies demonstrated a role of uric acid in the development of arterial hypertension and systemic arteriosclerosis, with an increase in cardiovascular risk. It also appears from observational studies that high uric acid is an independent risk factor associated with de novo onset of chronic kidney disease after adjustment of main confounding variables. Hyperuricemic subjects treated with febuxostat, a selective inhibitor of xantino-oxidase, showed in RCTs a better control of hyperuricaemia in comparison with those receiving allopurinol. Moreover, observational studies indicate that urate lowering treatment could be helpful in reducing cardiovascular events as well as in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease; randomized controlled studies, designed to assess as primary outcome the nephroprotective effect of urate lowering treatment, are in progress.

KEY WORDS: hyperuricaemia, urate lowering drugs, chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

EPIDEMIOLOGIA DELL’IPERURICEMIA

Si definisce iperuricemia il riscontro di valori di acido urico (UA) sierico >6 mg/dl; tale condizione può essere il risultato di un’iperproduzione o, più frequentemente, di un’inefficiente escrezione urinaria per ridotta secrezione a livello tubulare renale. Quando i livelli sierici di UA raggiungono il fisiologico limite di saturazione, si può osservare una precipitazione di cristalli di urato a carico delle articolazioni, fino alla comparsa in circa il 10% dei casi di un attacco gottoso (1).  

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