Role of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) in chronic kidney patients: a review

Abstract

About 90%of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have arterial hypertension; the main international guidelines recommend maintaining blood pressure (BP) values below 130/80 mmHg to reduce the cardio-renal risk in this population. Twenty-four-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) is the golden standard for the identification of the BP profiles and patterns, as well as for the assessment of the circadian rhythm and BP variability. The correct interpretation of ABPM allows to optimize anti-hypertensive treatment and to reduce cardio-renal risk in CKD patient.

In fact, in patients with CKD, the ABPM has a greater role in terms of renal and cardio-vascular prognosis when compared to clinical BP measurements. Patients with ABPM in target present a low cardio-renal risk, regardless of clinical BP values; on the contrary, if the clinical PA is normal and the ABPM not in target, this risk increases significantly. Moreover, in the CKD population, non-dipping is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events and end stage renal disease (ESRD), making identifying nocturnal hypertension greatly important.

Therefore, ABPM is an instrument of primary importance in the diagnostic and therapeutic work-out of renal patients.

 

KEYWORDS: ABPM, CKD, blood pressure

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Between old and new targets: blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients

Abstract

Objective. In developed countries, blood pressure (BP) control has increased over the past few decades and is now approaching 70% of patients. Herewith we report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out on hypertensive outpatients.

Design and methods. In a cohort of 1,412 consecutive hypertensive outpatients (790 females, 622 males; mean age: 60.3±12.2 years) evaluated from January 2015 to December 2016, the following parameters were assessed: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), smoking habits, BP in the sitting position, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum glucose, lipid profile, antihypertensive drugs prescribed. In agreement with the European guidelines, hypertension was defined as sitting BP ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive drugs. Patients whose BP was <140/90 mmHg were considered as having achieved BP control. Furthermore, in compliance with the redefinition of hypertension suggested by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), a second level of BP control (BP <130/80 mmHg) was evaluated.

Results. Overall, 75.7% of hypertensive patients achieved BP levels <140/90 mmHg, while 50.5% achieved BP levels <130/80 mmHg. In both contexts, compared with patients whose BP was not controlled, those achieving the BP targets were mainly younger and females with a lower prevalence of obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, they also had a lower WC and a higher eGFR.

Conclusions. Nearly 76% of patients achieved the BP target of <140/90 mmHg, a result which is higher than the 70% achieved in Europe, and 50.6% achieved that of <130/80 mmHg, a result which is slightly higher than the 47% recently reported in USA.

Keywords: Blood pressure, blood pressure control, hypertension.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Renal manifestation of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease affects over 12 million people in the world and is the fourth cause of ESRD. It is the main monogenic kidney disease and causes the progressive formation of cysts leading to renal failure after a few decades. The main manifestations of the disease are observed even at a young age.
The early sign of ADPKD is impaired urinary concentrating capacity, due to medullary alteration by cysts, and resistance to vasopressin.
These anatomical alterations determine hyperfiltration, altered ammonium transport, nephrolithiasis, and, above all, hypertension even in pediatric age. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been shown responsible for the maintenance of high pressure values as well as the growth of cysts and renal fibrosis. Arterial hypertension would be responsible for ventricular hypertrophy.
Many recent studies have confirmed the role of pressure control, especially if rigorous, in decreasing the progression of renal disease, and the use of ACE inhibitors seems to have higher efficacy than other antihypertensive drugs.
The progression of renal disease is evidenced by the reduction of glomerular filtration which may be minimal in the early years, due to hyperfiltration, but, then, may even exceed 5 ml / min per year, especially when the total kidney volume (TKV) exceeds 1500 ml.
In more rapid progression forms, ESRD may appear at about 55 years of age. The main risk factors are age, genetic mutation, familiarity with ESRD, macrohematuria episodes, and early onset hypertension. Some authors have proposed both genetic and clinical scores that can provide guidance on the probability of rapid progression.
Other renal manifestations include kidney pain, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections and cyst hemorrhage. Renal cell carcinoma is a very rare event.

 

Keywords: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, hypertension, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, compensatory hyperfiltration, renal volume, ESRD.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

PRES (Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome): Potential complication of hypertensive crisis. Case report and literature review

Abstract

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible, characterized by vasogenic oedema in cerebral posterior regions in patients with autoimmune diseases, nephropathies, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia and exposure to cytotoxic drugs. The main symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, visual disturbance and altered consciousness. Complications as cerebral hemorrhage and recurrences are rare.

We describe a case of a 65 years old woman, affected by chronic kidney disease, recently exacerbated, diabetes and hypertension in treatment, who showed an heterogeneous clinical presentation with vomiting, headache, blurred vision and impaired consciousness during an episode of acute hypertension. After an adjustement of the antihypertensive treatment we observed a regression of symptoms in one week. FLAIR sequences on MRI showed cerebral bilateral vasogenic oedema in posterior regions, typical for PRES. This case was suggestive for PRES and a prompt adjustement of the antihypertensive treatment was critical for clinical recovery. Brain MRI was crucial for diagnosis. It is important for clinicians to recognize PRES as a possible complication of renal disease and hypertensive crisis.

Key words: Chronic kidney disease, Hypertension, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.