Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: a complex relationship with promising therapeutic opportunities

Abstract

In the last few years, the increasing awareness of the complex interaction between monoclonal component and renal damage has determined not only a new classification of the associated disorders, called Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance (MGRS), but has also contributed to emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis of the renal involvement, which is often hard to detect but can evolve towards terminal uraemia; it has also pointed at the need to treat these disorders  with aggressive regimens, even if they are not strictly neoplastic.

The case described here presented urinary abnormalities and renal failure secondary to a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), with intensively positive immunofluorescence (IF) for monoclonal k light chain and C3, and in the absence of a neoplastic lympho-proliferative disorder documented on bone marrow biopsy. After the final diagnosis of MGRS, the patient was treated with several cycles of a therapy including dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and bortezomib, showing a good functional and clinical response.

 

Keywords: monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, kidney biopsy

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with relapsing episodes of acute kidney injury in the Schnitzler syndrome

Abstract

The Schnitzler syndrome (SS) is a rare and underdiagnosed entity that associates a chronic urticarial rash, monoclonal IgM (or sometimes IgG) gammopathy and signs and symptoms of systemic inflammation. During the past 45 years the SS has evolved from an elusive, little-known disorder to the paradigm of a late-onset auto-inflammatory acquired syndrome. Though there is no definite proof of its precise pathogenesis, it should be considered as an acquired disease involving abnormal stimulation of the innate immune system, which can be reversed by the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist anakinra. Here we describe the case of a 56-year-old male Caucasian patient affected by SS and hospitalized several times in our unit because of relapsing episodes of acute kidney injury. He underwent an ultrasound-guided percutaneous kidney biopsy in September 2012, which showed the histologic picture of type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. He has undergone conventional therapies, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids and immunosuppressive drugs; more recently, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra has been prescribed, with striking clinical improvement. Although the literature regarding kidney involvement in the SS is lacking, it can however be so severe, as in the case reported here, to lead us to recommend the systematic search of nephropathy markers in the SS.

 

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, auto-inflammatory diseases, chronic urticarial rash, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, monoclonal IgM gammopathy, Schnitzler syndrome

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.