The definition of chronic kidney disease in a context of aging population

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressively chronic disease that carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant healthcare utilization and costs. Recent trends shown that the prevalence of CKD is stable in Europe and USA, whereas tends to decline in some countries with a high standard of care.

According to international guidelines, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or a glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min. This staging method has a main drawback, its imprecise assessment of renal function at the extremes of the age bracket: the use of a fixed threshold value (glomerular filtration rate [GFR <60 ml /min]) to define chronic renal failure appears an imprecise measure in the young and in the elderly. In these two groups, in fact, the measurement of GFR is difficult to categorize in a "rigid" system of classification. The reduction of the GFR with aging is due to a complex process that leads to a steady reduction of the functioning nephrons over 40 years of age. Taken together, these findings should spur us to adopt a new definition of CKD. An age-adapted definition of CKD could be a good solution to avoid a diagnosis of CKD in elderly patients (GFR >45 ml/min) when there are no prognostic implications on survival. The adoption of this new definition would also reduce the high prevalence of the disease in the general population, with a beneficial reduction of the costs associated with monitoring a mildly decreased eGFR.

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Introduzione

Dal 2013 la World Health Organization (WHO) sostiene un progetto denominato “global action plan” che promuovere la salute e il benessere psico-fisico della popolazione mondiale. Il progetto, basato sulla prevenzione e il controllo delle malattie non trasmissibili, ha l’obiettivo di ridurre la mortalità dovuta a cancro, malattia cardiovascolare, malattia respiratoria cronica e diabete del 25% nel 2025 [1]. Sebbene la malattia renale cronica (MRC) non sia elencata tra le patologie croniche, è opinione comune che questa impatti profondamente sullo stato di salute dei pazienti affetti. A tal proposito il Ministero della Salute inserisce la MRC nel piano nazionale della cronicità del 2016. 

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Challenges and results of the PIRP project (Prevenzione della Insufficienza Renale Progressiva) of the Emilia-Romagna Region

Abstract

The PIRP project was conceived in 2004; with the aim to face the increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with the aging and increased survival of the population. The first phase of the project consisted of training primary care physicians to identify people at risk of CKD and to implement intervention strategies that proved to be effective in preventing CKD it or delaying its progression once it is established. In the second phase of the project, dedicated ambulatories were opened in the nephrology units of Emilia-Romagna hospitals to provide an in-depth assessment and personalized care to CKD patients, following them up until renal failure or death or referring them back to general practitioners, according to the study protocol. A web-based registry was implemented to collect demographic and clinical data on PIRP patients. As of 30 June 2018, the registry included 26.211 CKD patients, with a median follow-up of 24.5 months. Over the 14 years of the PIRP the mean age of incident patients increased from 71.0 years to 74.2 years and the mean eGFR increased from 30.56 to 36.52 mL/min/1.73 m2, proving that the project was successful in recruiting older patients with a better renal function. At 5 years, the percentage of patients still active in the project was >45%.The implementation of the project has seen a reduction in the number of patients arriving every year to the dialysis treatment in E-R (about 100 units less from 2006 to 2016). The PIRP cohort is the largest in Italy and in Europe, which makes it ideal for research based on international comparisons and as a model for national registries.

Keywords: Renal insufficiency, CKD, GP, GFR, Proteinuria, Public Health Intervention

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

INTRODUZIONE

La Malattia Renale Cronica (MRC) è, nell’ambito delle patologie croniche, una condizione molto diffusa, con una prevalenza crescente nella popolazione generale e con una stima a livello mondiale di circa il 10-15% (1). In Italia la prevalenza della MRC è stimata sull’ordine del 7,5% negli uomini e del 6,5% nelle donne sulla base dello studio CARHES (2). Questi dati di prevalenza italiana, sotto certi aspetti consolanti, sono però destinati ad aumentare per diversi ordini di fattori: i) invecchiamento della popolazione; ii) aumentata prevalenza nella popolazione generale di condizioni cliniche ad elevato rischio di danno renale (diabete mellito, sindrome metabolica, ipertensione arteriosa) (3), iii) aumentata sopravvivenza dei pazienti co-morbidi e complessi.

 

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