Efficacy of sustained low-efficiency dialysis in the management of topiramate intoxication: case report


Guidelines on the use of dialysis treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and TPM (Topiramate) intoxication are controversial. A 51-year-old man with epilepsy and CKD was carried to our emergency department for dysuria and sickness. He chronically assumed TPM 100 mg 3/day. Creatinine level was 2.1 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen 70 mg/dL, and inflammation indexes were increased.

We started empirical antibiotic therapy and rehydration. The day two he had diarrhea and an acute insurgence of dizziness, confusion, and bicarbonate levels reduction. Brain CT resulted negative for acute events. During the night his mental status worsened, and urinary output results were about 200 mL in 12h. EEG showed desynchronized brain bioelectric activity. Thereafter, there was an episode of seizure and then anuria, hemodynamic instability, and loss of consciousness. Creatinine value was 5.39 mg/dL with a serious metabolic acidosis non-anion gap. We decided to start 6-hours Sustained Low Efficiency Hemo-Dia-Filtration (SLE-HDF). We assisted in the recovery of consciousness and later in the improvement of kidney function after 4 hours of treatment. TPM levels before SLE-HDF resulted in 123.1 µg/mL. At the end of treatment resulted in 30 µg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of TPM involuntary intoxication in a patient affected by CKD who survived such a high TPM concentration treated with renal replacement therapy. SLE-HDF resulted in moderate elimination of TPM and acidemia resolution, continuous monitoring patient’s vital parameters in relation to his hemodynamic instability, since blood flow and dialysate flow are lower than conventional hemodialysis.

Keywords: Intoxication, Sustained Low-efficiency dialysis, hemodialysis, metabolic acidosis, continuous venovenous haemofiltration


Topiramate (TPM) is an anticonvulsant agent indicated according to American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guidelines as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of focal and mixed seizures, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and as monotherapy for refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children. At steady-state concentration, renal clearance of this drug is 1.02 L/h and its elimination half-life (T1/2) varies from 20 to 30 h. In all species, TPM is predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine [1].

Guidelines on the use of dialysis treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease and topiramate intoxication are controversial. We describe a case of topiramate overdose treated with sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED). 

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Giant parathyroid adenoma: a rare cause of severe hypercalcemia


We report the case of a 37-year-old woman that developed severe hypercalcemia due to a parathyroid gland mass. After the initial medical treatment, only a minimal reduction of calcemia was observed and her clinical condition worsened; thus, she required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) that resulted in the normalization of calcium serum level. She then underwent a left thyroid lobectomy with exeresis of the associated parathyroid glands; the histological diagnosis revealed a giant parathyroid adenoma (GPA). CRRT, initially recommended only in case of severe refractory hypercalcemia poorly responsive to pharmacological approaches, is now being evaluated in the first line treatment of life-threatening cases, with or without associated acute kidney injury (AKI).


Keywords: hypercalcemia, giant parathyroid adenoma, continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD)

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.


L’ipercalcemia è una condizione patologica frequente con un’incidenza stimata di 1 evento per 1.000 persone-anno ed è responsabile di circa lo 0,6% delle ammissioni ospedaliere totali [1]. L’iperparatiroidismo, le neoplasie e le malattie ematologiche sono le cause più comuni di ipercalcemia. I farmaci, le malattie granulomatose e le endocrinopatie possono essere implicate nei restanti casi [2,3].

L’ipercalcemia severa è una condizione sporadica ma pericolosa per la vita a causa delle complicanze cardiovascolari, renali e neurologiche associate, come aritmie fatali, arresto cardiaco, insufficienza renale acuta (IRA), flaccidità muscolare, disfunzione neurologica con ottundimento del sensorio o coma ed eventualmente morte [4]. Sia il quadro sintomatologico che l’urgenza della terapia dipendono dal timing di insorgenza dell’ipercalcemia e dal livello di incremento del valore del calcio sierico. L’acute kidney injury (AKI) è frequentemente causata da condizioni severe di ipercalcemia e la decisione di impiegare la terapia sostitutiva renale (RRT) è spesso necessaria per gestire l’ipercalcemia, l’uremia e le alterazioni elettrolitiche legate al danno renale. Il trattamento può differire a seconda della presentazione clinica; i quadri asintomatici possono richiedere solo follow-up ed indagini laboratoristico-strumentali di secondo livello, mentre nei casi moderati-severi può essere necessario il ricovero in area critica [1]. Le strategie terapeutiche attuali per il trattamento dell’ipercalcemia acuta consistono nella somministrazione di fluidi per via endovenosa, di calcitonina, bifosfonati e nel trattamento emodialitico. Nel caso in cui una neoplasia costituisca la causa primaria di ipercalcemia, il goal terapeutico dovrebbe essere quello di rimuovere la massa neoplastica una volta che il paziente sia stabilizzato [3]. Il trattamento emodialitico continuo, inizialmente raccomandato solo in caso di ipercalcemia severa refrattaria poco responsiva alla terapia farmacologica, è ad oggi rivalutato e suggerito in prima linea per il controllo di casi a rischio di vita con o senza IRA [2]. 

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