Monoclonal Gammopathies of Renal Significance (MGRS) are a complex group of disorders characterized by the production of aberrant monoclonal proteins that interact with kidney structures, causing tissue damage. Unlike neoplastic forms, kidney damage in MGRS does not correlate with clone mass or circulating monoclonal protein levels, conferring unique pre-neoplastic or non-neoplastic properties to the responsible clones.
This manuscript explores the heterogeneity of monoclonal proteins involved, varying from full immunoglobulins to free light chains (FLC), and how they result in a spectrum of kidney lesions with differing prognoses. We also elaborate on diagnostic challenges, emphasizing the indispensable role of kidney biopsy, including advanced techniques like laser microdissection and mass spectrometry (LMD/MS) for deposit characterization, particularly in ambiguous or complex cases. Clinical management and treatment considerations, including the necessity for clone identification, are also discussed.
Keywords: Plasma Cell Dyscrasias, Monoclonal gammopathy, Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, Kidney biopsy