Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of urogenital cancer. It has a mortality rate of 30-40% and is more commonly seen in men than women. In addition to gender, other risk factors of RCC include obesity, hypertension, smoking, and chronic kidney disease. Following the improvements in diagnostic tests, such as CT and MRI imaging, the incidence of patients diagnosed with RCC has rapidly increased over the past decades. The most common type of RCC, based on histological and molecular subtypes, is clear cell carcinoma which occurs frequently due to mutations in the VHL gene. Nephron-sparing surgery is a selective technique to maintain kidneys in patients while radical nephrectomy and partial nephrectomy are used to remove small tumors. In addition to surgical approaches, adjuvant therapy and targeted therapy are applied in patients with metastatic RCC. In this review, we give an overview of the most recent research on RCC which would help physicians to better manage patients with RCC.
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, kidney cancer, genetics