Estimating the euvolemia and dry weight of hemodialysis patients still represents a challenge for the nephrologist, since both dehydration and hyperhydration are associated with intradialytic events and cardiovascular complications in the short and long term.
Despite the need for a precise and objective definition of the dry weight for the individual patient on dialysis, this is usually determined on a clinical basis. To obtain greater sensitivity the dosage of natriuretic peptides, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and, more recently, Lung Ultra-Sound (LUS) can all be used. The BIA allows to estimate the subject’s body composition and, in particular, the distribution of body fluids. The presence of hyperhydration, as determined through the BIA, is predictive of an increased mortality in numerous observational studies.
In recent years, pulmonary ultrasound has taken on an increasingly important role not only within the cardiology and intensive care units, but also in a nephrology setting, especially in dialysis.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the advantages and limitations of the methods that can be used to assess the dry weight of patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment.
Keywords: hemodialysis, lung ultra-sound, bioelectrical impedance analysis, overhydration, dry weight