Figure 4 (Small)

Figure 4. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) a “master sewer” who perfected many techniques for vascular union still used today, in Lyon 1901-2. Not illustrated is the famous “Carrel patch” much used in renal transplantation. In Chicago, after emigrating to the USA, he did many dog transplants and, together with Guthrie (see below) postulated the “biological incompatibility” which led to graft loss. Later in life he, his ideas and life became controversial, for numerous reasons (see (8)).