Figure 21. The end of prehistory and the future of clinical transplantation. Roy Calne (1930- fl.) (left) after using 6-MP in dogs and man, showed in 1962 that imuran, a thiazole derivative of 6-MP absorbed orally, would successfully prolong renal grafts in dogs whilst on a scholarship in Boston. Thomas Starzl (1926-2017) in Colorado combined corticosteroids and imuran in 1962, starting and rapidly did 30 transplants, more than three quarters of which functioned and the recipients survived long term. Both men were at heart more interested in the challenges and biology of liver transplantation (courtesy Roy Calne and University of Pittsburgh).