Figure 14 (Small)

Figure 14. On the left is Ruth Tucker (1906-1954) doing her housewife duties, recipient of a cadaver kidney transplanted by Richard Lawler (1895-1982) in Chicago in 1950 (Right). Lawler intended to “start something”, and he certainly succeeded, as another two dozen grafts were done in the following decade, most without any immune modification save corticosteroids in small doses in some cases. In 1958-1962, irradiation was used to modify recipients and a number survived long-term.