Maggio Giugno 2016 - In depth review

Acute Kidney Injury, Type – 3 cardiorenal syndrome, Biomarkers, Renal Replacement Therapy


Cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events represent main cause of death in both acute and chronic kidney disease patients.

Kidney and heart failure are common and frequently co-exist This organ-organ interaction, also called ‘organ cross-talk’, leads to well-known definition of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Here we will describe cardiovascular involvement in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Also known as Type-3 CRS or acute reno-cardiac CRS, it occurs when AKI contributes and/or precipitates development of acute cardiac injury.

AKI may directly or indirectly produces an acute cardiac event and it can be associated with volume overload, metabolic acidosis and electrolytes disorders such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia, coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction and fibrosis which has been also described in patients with AKI with the consequence of direct negative effects on cardiac performance.

Key words: acute kidney injury, biomarkers, renal replacement therapy, Type-3 cardiorenal syndrome

Full text of the article is available in Italian.