Usefulness of sCD14-ST in the diagnosis of sepsis in patient with renal failure

Abstract

Since many years, researchers have focused their studies to find out early sepsis biomarkers for the purpose of gaining time in the application of early goal-directed therapy protocol. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a reliable biomarker for sepsis, although it has a low specificity and prognostic value. Other recently proposed sepsis biomarkers such as interleukins, C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloid cells expressing triggering receptor-1 (TREM-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) still have a controversial and uncertain clinical value.

In 2004 a new biomarker, soluble CD14 SubType (sCD14-ST, Presepsin), with a good performance in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of sepsis has been proposed. First studies highlighted that Presepsin is highly sensitive and specific at the same time. However, further studies on the clinical value of Presepsin are needed, particularly in order to explain the relationship between Presepsin and kidney failure. Indeed, Presepsin is a 13 KDa molecule theoretically totally filtered by glomerulus and reabsorbed and metabolized by proximal convoluted tubules. Therefore, the Presepsin plasmatic level could be highly influenced by an acute kidney injury in the course of sepsis or by a pre-existing chronic kidney disease.

In this article we reviewed the latest evidences about the diagnostic and prognostic performances of Presepsin as a sepsis biomarker. We evaluated the usefulness of Presepsin in the context of acute and chronic kidney dysfunction. The great number of articles have been collected and the thorough revision of data from the nephrologist’s perspective let us consider this work exhaustive and scientifically reliable, although concise: a good starting point for the physician who wants to make use of Presepsin.

Key words: presepsin, sCD14-ST, biomarker, kidney failure, sepsis

Full text of the article is available in Italian.