Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare and life-threatening complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis and until now, there is no established medical treatment for it. Many factors have been incriminated in its pathogenesis but they do not explain all risk conditions. EPS is significantly associated with PD duration, particularly more than 5 years, however the relationship between long-term PD and EPS increased risk is currently unknown. The “two-hit hypothesis” analyzes the relationship between the histological changes Peritoneal Dialysis-induced and intercurrent acute inflammatory episodes, but it does not explain the transition from Sclerosis Simple to EPS. We report our experience and we investigate the predisposing factors. The abdominal cocooning is a pathognomonic finding but it requires further investigations. Probably unidentified factors make some patients more susceptible to developing encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis.
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