Protected: New Treatment Strategies in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: Beyond Neurohormonal Inhibition

Abstract

Patients affected by heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are prone to experience episodes of worsening symptoms and signs despite continued therapy, termed “worsening heart failure” (WHF). Although guideline-directed medical therapy is well established, worsening of chronic heart failure accounts for almost 50% of all hospital admissions for HF with consequent higher risk of death and hospitalization than patients with “stable” HF. New drugs are emerging as cornerstones to reduce residual risk of both cardiovascular mortality and readmission for heart failure.
The following review will debate about emerging definition of WHF in light of the recent clinical consensus released by the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the new therapeutic strategies in cardiorenal patients.

Keywords: Heart Failure, Worsening Heart Failure (WHF), Cardiorenal Syndrome, Vericiguat

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