Medical Oncology since the beginning of the new millennium has recognized a great positive evolution in the care of cancer.
In fact, for more than 60 years the two classical pillars of the antineoplastic therapy were hormone therapies mainly applied in breast, prostate and thyroid cancer, and chemotherapy seldom curative and heavily toxic.
Nowadays some new treatments are available thanks to the advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular biology of tumor cells either to the advances in immunology studies.
Specific pathways in cancer cells have been recognized and hit by targeted drugs.
Monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, checkpoint inhibitors, cellular therapies and vaccines are the new tools for oncologists.
The last discovery is the antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), which combine monoclonal antibodies with cytotoxic drugs.
Unfortunately, these impressive advances have caused the appearance of new scientific, social, and financial problems.
All these topics are discussed in the article.
Keywords: oncology, survival, therapy, innovation