The link between chronic renal failure and anemia has been known for more than 180 years, negatively impacting the quality of life, cardiovascular risk, mortality, and morbidity of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Traditionally, the management of anemia in CKD has been based on the use of replacement martial therapy, vitamin therapy, and the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). In recent years, alongside these consolidated therapies, new molecules known as hypoxia-induced factor prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) have appeared. The mechanism of action is expressed through an increased transcriptional activity of the HIF gene with increased erythropoietin production. The drugs currently produced are roxadustat, daprodustat, vadadustat, molidustat, desidustat, and enarodustat; among these only roxadustat is currently approved and usable in Italy. The possibility of oral intake, pleiotropic activity on martial and lipidic metabolism, and the non-inferiority compared to erythropoietins make these drugs a valid alternative to the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease in the nephrologist practice.
Keywords: CKD, Anemia, Erythropoietin, HIF, Roxadustat