Intravenous iodinated contrast media are commonly used in clinical practice, ranging from medical imaging to interventional radiology (IR) procedures and endovascular interventions. Compared with patients with normal renal function, nephropathic patients have an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Nevertheless, this condition cannot represent a limit to diagnostics or endovascular interventions.
Despite the literature of the last five years, conflicting management and approaches for nephropathic patients persist, including the use of contrast agents and treatments replacing renal functions, which are often mistakenly considered as part of preventive strategies. Though the issue has been widely discussed, specialists often cope with uncertainty in handling properly the administration of contrast media and renal counselling requests. Furthermore, there is a general difficulty in distinguishing the Post-Contrast Acute Kidney Injury (PC-AKI) from the Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury (CI-AKI).
The present review aims to provide an update on the issue and examine strategies to reduce the acute kidney injury risk after the administration of contrast media. These strategies include the early identification of high-risk individuals, the choice of the contrast media and the proper dosage, the suspension of nephrotoxic drugs, the follow-up of the high-risk individuals, and the early identification of AKI.
Keywords: Constrast Medium, Acute Kidney Injury, Prevention, Hydration