Background. Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic cause of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), and, thus, of kidney transplantation and dialysis. Educational interventions aimed to improve adherence to therapy, physical performance, and adequate food intake in patients can slow down disease progression by developing self-care skills, which are useful to promote their autonomy while aligning their life plans and required treatments.
The aim of this review is to analyze the adherence of patients with polycystic kidney to pharmacological therapy, low-sodium diet, and physical activity, as evidenced in the clinical literature to guide structured educational interventions.
Methods. We conducted a literature review from 01/09/2021 to 30/12/2022 through the combination of free keywords and MeSH terms on the databases: PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane.
Results. Findings in medical literature show that physical activity can improve blood pressure control and a low-sodium diet can slow down the progression towards ESRD. Furthermore, although patients may adhere to the complex drug therapy, unresolved educational demands concern choices and behaviors of daily life that, involving the sphere of feelings and emotions, can evolve into manifestations of anxiety and stress. Conclusion. Among ADPKD patients a personalized educational support, considering disease stage and psychological factors, may enable them to acquire knowledge, skills, and behaviors that can improve clinical outcomes.
Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, patient education, disease management