In order to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, mass-vaccination programs have been launched globally starting December 2020. The pace of COVID-19 vaccines development was impressive and although data from clinical trials and post-authorization studies showed acceptable safety profile, additional studies and long-term population-level surveillance are needed. A possible link between all type of vaccination and immunological diseases is perhaps one of the hottest topics in literature; correspondingly, there is growing concern over the small but growing number of case reports linking COVID-19 vaccines with the development of glomerular disease. Our group conducted a systematic review of such cases. Results showed that IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and Minimal Change Disease (MCD) are the most frequently associated glomerulopathies. Interestingly, IgAN cases are mostly flares occurring few hours after the second dose of RNA vaccines and have a good clinical outcome, while both de novo and recurring MCD can occur up to 28 days after the first or second dose of vaccines. RNA vaccines are the most common vaccine type to be associated with glomerulopathy. Of course, this may simply reflect the more widespread use of these vaccines. However, compared to traditional vaccines, they do seem produce a higher antibody response and a stronger CD8+ T- and CD4+ T-cell response, including higher production of chemokines and cytokines.
Keywords: anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, glomerulopathy, immuno-mediated nephropathy