Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose most common causes include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. About 40% of patients with diabetes develop CKD. Intensive blood glucose control through pharmacological intervention can delay CKD progression. Standard therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes include metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones and insulin. While these drugs have an important role in the management of type 2 diabetes, only the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone can be used across the spectrum of CKD (stages 2–5) and without dose adjustment. Newer therapies, particularly dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors are increasingly being used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, a major consideration is whether these newer therapies can also be used safely and effectively across the spectrum of renal impairment.
Full text of the article is available in Italian.