Most patients with ADPKD do not need molecular genetic testing. When indicated, Sanger sequencing is the most commonly used technique. When a pathogenic mutation is not identiﬁed by Sanger, multiplex ligation-dependent probe ampliﬁcation analysis (MLPA) should be performed to detect gene rearrangement (insertion or deletion). The next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques can provide high-throughput and comprehensive diagnostic screening at lower cost. Finally, in the future, targeted (TS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) will likely play a role in the molecular diagnostics of ADPKD. Molecular genetic testing is indicated in several conditions: no family history; equivocal/atypical renal imaging; marked discordant disease within family; early and severe PKD; reproductive counseling and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; related living donor transplantation.
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