Water immersion model in nephrology: from hydrotherapy to weightlessness

Abstract

The term immersion connotes a wide range of different procedures ranging from whole body immersion to head-out water immersion carried out utilizing diverse body postures and water temperatures. Though hydrotherapy has been used for centuries, it was the space program in the sixties of the twentieth century, which gave a new impetus to this procedure as an nonaggressive investigative tool, which has been used in studding the influence of weightlessness on hemodynamic, metabolic, hormonal and nervous system. It was possible because water immersion mimics the weightless state on earth.

During the next years head-out immersion model was used by scientists to investigate function and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys. After recognition that water immersion induces diuresis and natriuresis, the procedure has been used to study and to treat the disorders characterized by impaired volume homeostasis, as decompensated liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, essential hypertension, cardiac transplantation, diabetes, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma.

Between investigative groups, which contributed the most in studies with using head-out water immersion model there are teams of M. Epstein (Miami, USA), J.E. Greenleaf (USA), P. Norsk (Denmark), A. Koomans (Utrecht, The Netherlands) and F. Kokot (Katowice, Poland).

Keywords: water immersion, nephrology, hydrotherapy

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The contribution of Professor Karel Opatrný Jr., MD, DSc. (1954-2006) to nephrology

Abstract

Karel Opatrný Jr., finished his medical studies at the Charles University in Pilsen in 1979. After graduation he began to work at the 1st Department of Internal Medicine at then part of the District Health Authority, and Charles University School of Medicine in Pilsen until the end of 1989. From 1990 to 1992 he worked as an assistant professor in the Department of Internal Medicine at Strahov in Prague. During 1992-1994 he was the Head of this department. In 1994 he returned to Pilsen and became the Head of the 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Charles University Medical School and Teaching Hospital. He worked in this position until his premature death in 2006. The principal subjects of his scientific contributions were: hemostatic disorders in hemodialysis patients; biocompatibility of dialysis membranes; and the novel field of proteomics. He published more than 300 scientific papers, most of them in international journals, and delivered more than 280 lectures.

Key words: nephrology, Karel Opatrný Jr., uremia, biocompatibility of dialysis membrane, hemostatic disorders, proteomics

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History of the Polish Society of Nephrology

Abstract

Polish Society of Nephrology (PSN) was born during the Founding Congress organized in September 1983 in Bydgoszcz. The main propagator of this idea was prof. Franciszek Kokot (Katowice) – widely recognized in whole nephrological community. In Bydgoszcz the PSN by-laws was approved and first Executive Council of the Society was elected. First PSN president was elected Tadeusz Orłowski (Warszawa) and vicepresident Andrzej Manitius (Gdańsk) respectively. Subsequent Congresses were organizes each three years in following cities: Kraków (1986), Gdańsk (1989), Katowice (1992), Lublin (1995), Poznań (1998), Kraków (2001), Białystok (2004), Wisła (2007), Bydgoszcz (2010), Wrocław (2013) and Łódź (2016). During these meetings and annual conferences organized between congresses actual topics dedicated to pathophysiology, clinical nephrology, dialysis therapy and kidney transplantation were presented and discussed. Prof. Tadeusz Orłowski was the PSN president till 1986 and subsequently other known Polish nephrology leaders hold this function: Kazimierz Bączyk (Poznań: 1986-1989), Franciszek Kokot (Katowice: 1989-1998), Bolesław Rutkowski (Gdańsk: 1998-2004), Michał Myśliwiec (Białystok: 2004-2007), Andrzej Więcek (Katowice: 2007-2010), Jacek Manitius (Bydgoszcz: 2010-2013), Magdalena Durlik (Warszawa: 2013-2016) and Michał Nowicki (Łódź: 2016 – present). Number of PSN members has risen from 150 at the beginning to over 1000 nowadays. During this 34 years regional structure of PSN was established and today 9 regional divisions are actively working. In 2014 Young Nephrologists’ Club was organized in PSN which is collaborating with Young Nephrologists’ Platform existing in the ERA-EDTA structure. PSN is collaborating closely with international (ISN, ERA-EDTA, IAHN) and Polish (Polish Transplantation Society) scientific societies. Many well known scientists from whole the world were recognized as Honorary Members of PSN. Coming to the end of this short presentation of the PSN activity it is worth to mention also that two journals are officially recognized by our society: Nefrologia I Dializoterapia Polska (Polish Nephrology and Dialysis Therapy) edited from 1997 in Kraków and Forum Nefrologiczne (Nephrological Forum) edited from 2004 in Gdańsk.

Keywords: Poland, nephrology, society, history

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