Case Report. C.S.T. (♂, 71 years old) is a patient with multiple and severe comorbidities, undergoing thrice-weekly chronic hemodialysis since 2008 due to the progression of post-lithiasic uropathy. Over the past 2 months, the patient had been experiencing progressive ptosis of the eyelids, muscle weakness, and ultimately dysphagia and dysarthria that emerged in the last few days. Urgently admitted to the Neurology department, electromyography (EMG) was performed, leading to a diagnosis of predominant cranial myasthenia gravis (with borderline anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody serology). Prompt treatment with pyridostigmine and steroids was initiated.
Considering the high risk of acute myasthenic decompensation, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with centrifugation technique was promptly undertaken after femoral CVC placement. TPE sessions were alternated with hemodialysis. The patient’s condition complicated after the third TPE session, with septic shock caused by Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA). The patient was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Due to hemodynamic instability, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) with citrate anticoagulation was administered for 72 hours.
After resolving the septic condition, intermittent treatment with Acetate-Free Biofiltration (AFB) technique was resumed. The patient completed the remaining three TPE sessions and, once the acute condition was resolved, was transferred back to Neurology. Here, the patient continued the treatment and underwent a rehabilitation program, showing significant motor and functional recovery until discharge.
Conclusions. The multidisciplinary interaction among Nephrologists, Neurologists, Anesthesiologists, and experts from the Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine Service enabled the management and treatment of a rare condition (MG) in a high-risk chronic hemodialysis patient.
Keywords: Myasthenia Gravis, Plasmapheresis, Therapeutic Plasma Exchange, Hemodialysis, Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy