The use of Water for the treatment of Kidney Disorders

Abstract

The treatment of end stage renal failure is always based on the use of water. Both the artificial kidney machine and peritoneal dialysis use a huge amount of water, either in its pure condition (the RDT) or as the main ingredient in PD solutions. As these modalities are rather modern for an article on the history of the topic, we will skip them and proceed to the discussion of more ancient methods, correlating them with more recent times. Recent for us means from the 9th century onwards. The structure of this article was inspired by the Polka dance, originally a Czech dance and a genre of dance and music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It is still practiced in many countries and widely in Poland.
In this paper we present extracts from the works of Plato, Hippocrates, Aristophanes, Galen, Pliny the Elder, Paulus Aegineta, Rufus, Alexander, Avicenna with their views on mineral waters in general and their application on renal diseases. Gout and lithiasis figure prominently and were the more prominent indications for that mode of treatment. We followed the evolution of their ideas in time and compared them with the current use of hydrotherapy in various Spas with emphasis on the ones from Central and Eastern Europe.
We conclude that the popularity of hydrotherapy for treating kidney disorders was alternatively increasing and decreasing over centuries, resembling the Back and Forth steps of Polka

Keywords: Hydrotherapy, mineral waters, lithiasis, gout, Galen, Avicenna

Ci spiace, ma questo articolo è disponibile soltanto in Inglese Americano.

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Water immersion model in nephrology: from hydrotherapy to weightlessness

Abstract

The term immersion connotes a wide range of different procedures ranging from whole body immersion to head-out water immersion carried out utilizing diverse body postures and water temperatures. Though hydrotherapy has been used for centuries, it was the space program in the sixties of the twentieth century, which gave a new impetus to this procedure as an nonaggressive investigative tool, which has been used in studding the influence of weightlessness on hemodynamic, metabolic, hormonal and nervous system. It was possible because water immersion mimics the weightless state on earth.

During the next years head-out immersion model was used by scientists to investigate function and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys. After recognition that water immersion induces diuresis and natriuresis, the procedure has been used to study and to treat the disorders characterized by impaired volume homeostasis, as decompensated liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, essential hypertension, cardiac transplantation, diabetes, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma.

Between investigative groups, which contributed the most in studies with using head-out water immersion model there are teams of M. Epstein (Miami, USA), J.E. Greenleaf (USA), P. Norsk (Denmark), A. Koomans (Utrecht, The Netherlands) and F. Kokot (Katowice, Poland).

Keywords: water immersion, nephrology, hydrotherapy

Ci spiace, ma questo articolo è disponibile soltanto in Inglese Americano.

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