Practical approach to patient therapy affected by Autosomal Dominant Autosomic Polycystic Kidney Disease

Abstract

The Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease(ADPKD) is the most frequent renal genetic condition and involves 7 to 10% of subjects undergoing renal replacement therapy. It is estimated that between 24,000 and 34,000 subjects in Italy are affected by this condition. For an illness that has long been neglected due to a lack of treatment options, an attractive treatment possibility is now available: tolvaptan has shown clinical efficacy regarding disease progression in two clinical trials (ADPKD patients with mild renal failure and ADPKD patients with advanced renal failure). The possible liver toxicity expressed in about 4% of the subjects exposed to the drug and an important aquaretic effect suggest prudence and attention in the use of this new molecule. Based on these critical points, some clinicians with direct experience in the use of the drug have briefly collected in the pages to follow the main clinical recommendations for the treatment of ADPKD patients. The recommendations concern the general approach to the patient affected by ADPKD but with particular attention to the aspects related to the new treatment. The delicate task of introducing the opportunities and limitations of the offered therapy to the patient will be deepened. Finally, the document wants to suggest how best to organize a clinic dedicated to this condition.

Keywords: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, Renal failure, Cyst, Aneurysm, tolvaptan

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

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Next Generation Sequencing and ADPKD

Abstract

Autosomal Dominant Polycistic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited genetic disorder in the word, caused by mutations in PKD1 gene in 85% of cases and PKD 2 gene in the remaining 15%. Although diagnosis is usually based on ultrasound, MRI and CT scans, in some cases genetic testing is necessary, for example, in patients with atypical phenotype or with a negative family history, or in cases of donation from relatives. The presence of pseudogenes in PKD1, the size of the gene, the costs of the Sanger sequencing and genetic heterogeneity underlying kidney disease make genetic analysis particularly difficult to be performed.  Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) represents the last frontier of innovation among diagnostic tools for molecular diagnosis of inherited cystic kidney disease thanks to the ability to analyze several genes at the same time. In this regard, we have developed a NGS platform, called Nephroplex, with the aim of identifying variations in 115 genes responsible for numerous kidney diseases, including cystic and polycystic disease, achieving, overall, a target region of 338.8 kbps. The technology used for the enrichment is HaloPlex system, based on the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes and the capture of the regions of interest with specific hybridization probes. With our platform, we have analyzed 9 patients with clinical diagnosis of ADPKD. We have obtained a depth coverage of 100x for 96.5% of the target, while the region not covered accounted for only 3% of the region of interest. In 6 patients, we found causative mutations in the genes PKD1 and PKD2, achieving a detection rate of 66%. In conclusion, the NephroPlex platform has proved to be an excellent device for molecular diagnosis of kidney disease and could clarify the mechanisms underlying genetic heterogeneity observed in kidney disease

Keywords: ADPKD, Nephroplex, Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Next Generation Sequencing

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

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Renal manifestation of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease affects over 12 million people in the world and is the fourth cause of ESRD. It is the main monogenic kidney disease and causes the progressive formation of cysts leading to renal failure after a few decades. The main manifestations of the disease are observed even at a young age.
The early sign of ADPKD is impaired urinary concentrating capacity, due to medullary alteration by cysts, and resistance to vasopressin.
These anatomical alterations determine hyperfiltration, altered ammonium transport, nephrolithiasis, and, above all, hypertension even in pediatric age. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been shown responsible for the maintenance of high pressure values as well as the growth of cysts and renal fibrosis. Arterial hypertension would be responsible for ventricular hypertrophy.
Many recent studies have confirmed the role of pressure control, especially if rigorous, in decreasing the progression of renal disease, and the use of ACE inhibitors seems to have higher efficacy than other antihypertensive drugs.
The progression of renal disease is evidenced by the reduction of glomerular filtration which may be minimal in the early years, due to hyperfiltration, but, then, may even exceed 5 ml / min per year, especially when the total kidney volume (TKV) exceeds 1500 ml.
In more rapid progression forms, ESRD may appear at about 55 years of age. The main risk factors are age, genetic mutation, familiarity with ESRD, macrohematuria episodes, and early onset hypertension. Some authors have proposed both genetic and clinical scores that can provide guidance on the probability of rapid progression.
Other renal manifestations include kidney pain, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections and cyst hemorrhage. Renal cell carcinoma is a very rare event.

 

Keywords: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, hypertension, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, compensatory hyperfiltration, renal volume, ESRD.

Sorry, this entry is only available in Italian.

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